Kinds of Bill
The constitution divides Bills into three categories on (1) Money Bills, Ordinary Bill & Constitutional Amendment Bill. The Bill is to pass through so many stages before it becomes a Law. The Bill is discussed & debated thoroughly in these stages. These stages are mentioned below.Introduction of the BillAn ordinary Bill can be introduced in any House & by any member of the House. But a member can introduce the Bill in the same House of which he is a member. The mover of the Bill is to give a notice to this effect a month earlier. The admission of the notice brings a particular Bill on the agenda or the order of the day. There is no need for the ministers to give a months’ notice for this purpose. The agenda of the House or the programme of the House is prepared by the Cabinet & they can fix the date of the introduction of their Bill. Money Bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha & not in the Rajyasabha. Money Bill can only be introduced by the ministers and not by the ordinary members of the House.On the fixed date the mover of the Bill seeks the permission of the House of moving the Bill & it is very much a formality. On getting the permission of the House he only reads the title of the Bill. After this, he gives a copy of the Bill to the check of the House. It is called the introduction of the Bills. The Bill is sent to the Gazette of India for publication & its copies are distributed among the members of the House. The Government Bill can be published in the government gazette even without introducing them in the House & this method has been generally adopted.First readingAfter the introduction there is a first reading of the Bill. Sometimes there is a first reading of the Bill just after the introductory stage. Sometimes another date is fixed for the first reading of the Bill. On the fixed date the mover of the Bill stands up at his place & requests that the Bill should be read for the time. On getting permission of the House he explains the main principles & objects of the Bill. After this other members of the House express their opinions in favor or against the Bill. The Bill at this stage is not debated & discussed. Then the mover of the Bill puts a resolution that the Bill be sent to a Select Committee. Three decisions can be taken on such a resolution.The Bill should be sent to a Select Committee for giving its report on the bill.(ii) The Bill should be sent to the press & states for propaganda & public opinion should be elicited. The people send their views in favor or against the Bill to the Parliament.(iii) If the majority is opposed to the Bill it is dropped. Most Bills of private members are rejected at this stage, if they are not supported by the Cabinet.Select CommitteeIf the Bill is not rejected in the first reading, it is sent to a Select Committee. The committee consists of 20 to 30 members which are taken from among members of the House. The Bill which is published for eliciting public opinion is also sent to the Select Committee. The members of the Select Committee discuss the Bill in detail & debate the merits & demerits of the Bill. The committee can suggest amendments in the provision of clause of the Bill. After discussing the Bill thoroughly the committee prepares its report in favor of or against the Bill & suggests some amendments in the Bill. While preparing the report the committee takes into consideration public opinion also. Then the committee sends its report to the House.Second ReadingA day is fixed for discussing the report of the Select Committee on the Bill. The mover of the Bill on the fixed date request this Houses that the report of the Select Committee on the Bill may be discussed. The House discusses the Bill in detail. The Bill is discussed clause by clause & item by item. The views of the Select Committee on all clauses are discussed. The members of the House can suggest the amendments on the Bill. After the Bill is seriously discussed the opinion of the House is sought on such clause & amendment proposals are also put to vote. The Bill is passed according to the view point of the majority of the members. This stage is very important.Third ReadingAfter the Bill is passed in the second reading another date is fixed for the third reading of the Bill. This is the last stage in the passage of the Bill. Like the first stage there is not much of discussion on the Bill in this stage also. There is a little chance of the rejection of the Bill at this stage. At this stage the proposals for amending the Bill cannot be moved. Only proposals for change in the working of the Bill can be given. The entire Bill is put to vote at this stage and it is either rejected & passed.Bill in the second HouseAfter the Bill is passed by one House. It is sent to the second House. It is to pass through all the stages in this House. After the ordinary Bill is passed by both the Houses differ over a particular Bill a joint meeting of the two Houses is called for & the Bill is placed before it. The joint meeting of the two Houses decides the fate of the Bill by a majority vote. As the Lok Sabha is a larger body compared with the Rajyasabha hence the Bill is passed according to the wishes of Lok Sabha.The Rajyasabha can delay the passage of a Money Bill at the most for 14 days. If the Rajyasabha rejects the Money Bill or does not take any action for 14 days, under both those conditions the Money Bill will be considered passed.Assent of the PresidentAfter the Bill is passed by both the Houses it is sent to the President for his assent. The President cannot refuse to give his assent to the Money Bill. In case of ordinary Bill the President can make use of his veto power, that means that the President can refuse to give his assent to the ordinary Bills. However the President may return a Bill to the Parliament. If the Parliament cannot withhold his assent to such a Bill.The Bill becomes an Act when the President gives his assent to it. It can be enforced after the Presidents assent has been taken. It is published in the Government gazette.The procedure for the passage of a Money Bill is almost the same as that of an ordinary Bill. The significant difference between an Ordinary Bill & a Money Bill is that a Money Bill is always introduced by a Minister while an Ordinary Bill can be introduced by any member of the House. Secondly, a Money Bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only after its passage from the Lok Sabha it is sent to the Rajyasabha for its recommendation. The Rajyasabha can delay a Money Bill for 14 days only, cannot kill it. In case of differences between the two Houses over money Bill there cannot be a joint meeting. The President cannot neither send the Money Bill back for recommendation nor can it be rejected.
- It is the oldest form of democracy. U.K. is considered as the mother of this form of democracy.
- The elected leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister and then he forms the Government.
- The executive is called the Council of Ministers. The Cabinet is a small body inside it.
- The head of executive in this type of Government has usually formal powers. Actual powers are in the hands of Prime Minister.
- Democratic Governments can have another form too. It is called the Presidential Form. U.S.A. has this form of Government.
- In this form of Government the President is the head of the executive and is elected directly.
- The President has a body called Cabinet. Its members are known as secretaries. These secretaries are not members of Congress (their Parliament). Thus the executive is not part of legislature.
- The President being the real head of executive, can not be ordinarily removed from his pos
As regards the Federal structure of the Indian state, our constitution does not explicitly use the term federation, instead Article I, declares that India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States. However, this does not make India a unitary state. The original decision of the Indian Federal System
had all the basic features of a federal set up.Federal features:A Federal system is characterized me by two sets of government with a clear cut division of powers. It must also have a written constitution and a Supreme Court to examine the validity of the federal laws. Measured by these yardsticks India though called a Union of States is in constitutional, theory of federation. It has a written constitution which is the supreme law of the land and which is also the source of authority both for the national and sub-national Governments. Its provisions are binding an all Governments-of the country.Secondly, in its Seventh Schedule the constitution lays down in great detail in three lists like Union list, the state list and the concurrent list, the distribution of powers between the Union and the states.Unitary features:Despite these essential features of a federal set up India is not a classical federation. Nor did the constitution makers have any intention of providing for a tight mould of federation. This is evident from the dominant position which the founding fathers assigned to the centre in the original design of the Indian Federal System. (The paramount position of the centre is underscored by the constitutional division of powers. After distributing the Legislative Powers in three lists the residual subject that is those not covered by three lists are left with the union. By far more significant even in matters included in the concurrent list; the Union Govt. has the final say. The same is true about the state list Art 249 empowers the Parliament to make laws with respect to any matter in the state list, if the Rajya Sabha declares by a resolution that it is a necessary or expedient in the national interest.Art-3 of the constitution authorizes the Indian Parliament to create new states to alter the boundaries of the existing states and even to abolish a state by ordinary legislature procedure without recourse to constitutional amendment. It is completely destructive of the essence of a federal state which is supposed to be composed of units with co-ordinate but limited powers. A plea has been-made by the Karnataka Govt. to modify this article so as to make the consent of a State Legislature a precondition for the introduction in Parliament of any Bill affecting that state.The constitution envisages a sufficiently favorable position to the centre in matter of FINANCEalso. For good reason the more productive sources of revenue such as the income and the do-operation taxes and the duties of customs and excise are assigned to the Union Govt. Besides residuary powers of taxation are also vested in the Union Govt. A good many taxes are collected by the centre and distributed on the recommendation of the Finance, Commission among the states.Emergency provision:Under the emergency provision of the constitution the centre can arrogate to itself all or any legislative and executive function of the states. The President Rule thus tends to shift the balance in favor of the centre and converts the federal system into a unitary one.Representation:Apart from the unequal representation of the states in the Rajya Sabha a number of other provisions also reveal the constitutional imbalance between the Union and the states. The amending process of the Indian constitution, the single judicial system, the All India services, the single constitutional frame the single and uniform citizenship, the single Election Commission and provision for reservation of centre in State Bills for President’s Assent.Art 256 places a state government under obligation to exercise its powers as to ensure compliance with laws made Parliament and to that end the centre is empowered to issues necessary directives tout. In case of non-compliance by any state government of central directive the centre can resort to the extreme step of taking over the administration of such a state under Art. 356.With the coming of profound changes in the economic and technical fields as also in the ideas of men about Government and institution the environment of federalism has also radically changed. Both the centre and the units-all over the world have been compelled by circumstances to move out of their areas and the states have come to acquiesce in the pre-dominance of the centre. In view of this also to cling to the traditionalists approach emphasizes the need to redefine federalism in the light of the universal trends and tendencies which are clearly discernible in the existing federation. He also pleads that if under a system of government both the central and state authority declare their states and powers from the constitution and not from the central law and can ordinarily enjoy substantial autonomy within their respective jurisdiction set by the constitution then there’s no valid ground to deny federal character to that system of Government. Examined in the light of these criteria which are quite close to the living realities, Indian constitution can be safely described as federation.
Foundation of the Indian Congress:
The official founder of the Indian National Congress was A.O. Hume, who had retired from the service of the government in 1882. The scheme, however, was prepared in the government Secretariat at Simla and the then Governor General, Lord Duffer in took a leading part in its formulation. The motives which actuated Hume and his associates in the matter, were, a few years later, explained by the former in his correspondence with Sir Auckland Colvin, the Lt. Governor of the United Provinces. In his official capacity, Hume had seen seven volumes of secret police reports from different parts of the country. The evidence contained in them had convinced him that towards the close of Lord Lytton’s Viceroyalty, The country was in an immediate danger of a violent outbreak. There was terrible restlessness among the starving masses and they were bent upon doing something. The reports revealed that underground conspiratorial organizations were springing up and violent crimes like murder of obnoxious persons and the looting of bazaars were being planned on a large scale. It was also feared that a small number from the educated class who were at the time bitter against, the government would join the movement, assume here and there the lead, give the outbreak cohesion and direct it as a national revolt.Under these circumstances, Hume and his friends in the secretariat were convinced that something should be done to forestall the spontaneous revolutionary outbursts and to direct, the growing restlessness of the country into a constitutional channel.Hume took the initiative in to his hands. He formed a scheme in his mind and saw Lord Duffer in at Simla early in 1885. The Governor General blessed the idea of Hume. In March 1885 it was finally decided to hold a conference of representatives from all parts .of the country at Poona during the Christmas holidays.The aims of the conference were (1) to enable all the most earnest participants to become personally known to each other in the cause of national progress (2) to discuss and decide upon the political operations to be undertaken during the ensuing year.The meeting, however, could not be held at Poona owing to the outbreak of cholera in the town, and was shifted to Bombay. So, on December 28, 1885 and the two succeeding days, seventy two representatives from different provinces met at the Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College. Bombay, under the President ship of a Calcutta barrister W.C. Banerji.
Political Ideas of the moderates:
Faith in British Rule
The starting point of the early leaders of the Congress, often called moderates was their abiding faith that British rule was a great boon to India and a dispensation of providence. There were many factors responsible for their faith. First, the British had brought peace and order to the country after more than a century of disorder and anarchy that had been let loose on the land after the break up of the Mughal Empire. Besides, the moderates were grateful to the British for the introduction of Western type of administrative machinery and justice, rapid means of transport and communication, local self governing institutions, the free press, and above all for English education which, according to them, had brought new light to the country, Loyalty to the British, therefore, was the kernel of the political creed of the moderates. The Congress- declared Dadabhai Naoroji, was not a nursery for sedition and rebellion against the British government but another stone in the foundation of the stability of that Government.
The progressive part of the ideology of the liberals was their secular nationalism. They firmly believed that in spite of all the diversities, India was a nation. They tried to ignore and bypass all the caste and communal differences and focused the attention of educated classes on the questions of common interest. Despite the advocacy of many an English politician and some of their Indian disciples that India’s degradation was due to her social and religious decay and, therefore, social and religious reforms should precede political reforms, the moderates tenaciously maintained the secular character of the Congress and kept the social and religious problems away from politics.
No Doctrinaire Liberty
Although the democratic ideals of liberty, equality and representative government had great fascination for them, they were not doctrinaire philosophers. Their ideal of liberty was not a reproduction of the western concept. They did not believe in the principle of laissez faire. They stood for state protection of industries and looked to the government for social reform, education, and protection of agriculture, trade and industries, for measures of health and sanitation, famine relief and other matters of national advancement. But at the same time they were great champions of civil liberties of the people. They fought boldly for freedom of thought and expression, freedom of the press and personal liberty.
No Doctrinaire Equality
Similarly, they had nothing to do with the doctrinaire concept of equality. They believed that the Indians were not capable of managing their political and civil affairs, and, therefore, it was necessary for them to pass through a period of tutelage under the guardianship of the British. Yet they fought consistently for racial equality between Indians and Englishmen, and for social and religious equality among Indians themselves.
Objectives of the Congress:
There was broad uniformity in the objectives and methods of the Congress during the first twenty years in its history. Every year it passed a roughly similar set of resolutions dealing with three broad types of grievances: political, administrative and economic.
(1) Political Demands
The principal political demand was the establishment of genuine consultative councils, both at the centre and in the provinces, increase in the number of members of existing councils, introduction of the principle of election, placing of all legislative and financial measures including the budget before the councils and the right of interpretation to the members of Legislature. Thus, the immediate perspective fell far short of self-government or democracy. It was for the first time in 1906 that Dadabhai Naoroji in his President address, declared, “self-government or Swaraj” like that of the United Kingdom or the colonies to be the distant goal of the Congress. An equally important political demand was the abolition of the hated India Council.
2. Administrative Demands
(i) Employment – The question of employment of Indians in the public services engaged the attention of the Congress from the very beginning. It was demanded that competitive examinations should be held, simultaneously in India and England open to all classes of her Majesty’s subjects, that a classified list of appointments be made in order of merit, and that the age for competition should be not less than 19 and not more than 23. Similarly, it was insisted that the higher branches of Medical, P.W.D., Railway; opium, customs and Telegraph services be thrown open to Indians.(ii) Reduction of Military Expenditure – The military, problem was another important matter to which the Congress devoted serious thought from the outset. The main demands in this connection were the ever mounting military expenditure should be reduced, an equitable portion of that expenditure be borne by the British, treasury and a system of volunteering for Indians be introduced. The most noteworthy feature of the Congress stand on the military affairs was its unqualified condemnation of the forward aggressive policy of the government. The annexation of Burma, the Tibetan expedition of Lord Curzon and the forward frontier policy were severely criticized.(iii) Legal Rights – The Congress from the beginning was solicitous about safeguarding the legal rights of the people. The first demand in this connection was separation of executive from judicial function: Another important demand was the establishment of the system of trial by jury.(iv) Education – In the field of education the Congress demanded that the government should extend primary education, broaden secondary education, and maintain at its highest possible level higher education. Particular emphasis was laid on technical education for Indians.
3. Economic Demands
The economic issues raised were all bound with the general poverty of the masses, to the, first few years the official view of the Congress was that the drain of wealth caused by the employment of foreign agency in the administration of the country and the growing military expenditure were the main causes of the economic rain of the masses. Resolutions were passed calling for an enquiry into India’s growing poverty and famines demanding cuts in Home charges and military expenditure and funds for technical education to promote Indian industries, and an end to unfair tariffs and excise duties.The new land revenue system was also held responsible for the economic decline of the country and the main demands were introduction of Permanent Settlement and fixity of land revenue over the rest of the country.The early Congress was concerned not only with the interests of the English educated professional groups, zamindars or industrialists. It passed numerous resolutions on salt tax, treatment of Indian coolies abroad, and sufferings caused by forest administration.
The Constitutional Method
The method which the early Congress adopted for the redress of their grievances is commonly known as the constitutional method. It excluded not only rebellion, aiding or abetting foreign invasion and resort to violence, but all well-organized agitation. Even if their demands remain underdressed, they could not think of setting afoot an agitation that had the remotest possibility of arousing genuine indignation and dissatisfaction of the masses against the British Government. Even a peaceful agitation was inconsistent with their views and aims.The method of the moderates was an appeal to the sense of justice and generosity of British statesmen and people. Its essence was prayers and petitions. The early Congress concentrated, on building up through petitions. Speeches and articles a fool-proof logical case aimed at convincing the liberal-minded public opinion of the land of Cobden, Bright, Mill and Gladstone.Finally, the Congress politicians argued that the attainment of self-Government by other colonies of the British Empire was proof positives of the fact that the real intention of the English rulers was totrain Indian gradually in democratic institutions. As the time would come, India would also get at their hands the same type of government which they had conferred on other colonies.
Criticism ofthe Moderates’ Ideology
During the first twenty years, 1885-1905, the Congress was controlled by moderates. Their ideology and methodology both have been criticized on various grounds. Neither their political ideology was correct nor were their means effective. Their liberal nationalism was a queer mixture of patriotism-and loyalty to the British. Their thinking that the British rule was beneficial for the country was wrong. Their belief in the British sense of justice was also not correct. The later events proved that the British imperialists only understood the language of strength and pressure instead of truth and justice. Besides, the moderate leaders were not the leaders of the masses. Except Gokhala, no moderate jeader was prepared for individual sacrifice for the attainment of the goal of freedom.Moreover, the constitutional methodology adopted by moderates was not effective. Till 1918, despite petitions, memorandums, prayers and deputations, the British government did not show any real interest towards the legitimate demands of Indians. That is why the extremists later on described the moderate’s the methodology as political mendicancy.
In spite of the basic weaknesses of the political thought and practice of the moderates, they rendered significant service to the country. The annual sessions of the Congress gave a concrete form to the idea of national unity. The congress inculcated among the people of diverse races, religions, castes and languages, the sentiment of nationalism and patriotism. Even more important was the establishment of traditions of organized political activity. Finally, the moderates made a bold attempt to give a secular direction to Indian politics. However, from the practical point of view the moderates did not meet with any amount of success. None of their demands was conceded by the government.
Citizenship in India – Political Science Study Material & Notes
The constitution of India gives ‘Single Citizenship” for all its citizens India. This implies that there is no disparate domicile for a state.
Provisions for citizenship are mentioned in Article 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution. Individuals who are not Indian Citizens are onsideref Aliens. Aliens do not enjoy rights mentioned in Article 15,16,19,29,30 of the Constitution.
Indian Citizenship can be acquired by following four means:
A) Citizenship by birth :-
- Any person born in India on or after the 26th day of January,1950, but before the commencement of 1986 Act on 1st day of July, 1987, is a citizen of India by birth. ;
- Any person born on or after the 1st day of July, 1987, but before the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003 and either of whose parents is a citizen of India at the time of his birth is a citizen of India.
- Any person born on or after the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003, where either- (i) both of his parents are citizens of India; or (ii) one of whose parents is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of his birth, shall be a citizen of India by birth.
- Exceptions: A person shall not be a citizen of India by virtue of this section, if at the time of his birth- (a) either his father or mother possesses such immunity from suits and legal process as is accorded to an envoy of a foreign sovereign power accredited to the President of India and he or she, is not a citizen of India; (b) his father or mother is an enemy alien and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by the enemy.
B) Citizenship by descent :-
- A person born outside India on or after the 26th day of January, 1950, but before the 10th day of December, 1992, if his father is a citizen of India at the time of his birth shall be a citizen of India by descent.
- A person born outside India on or after the 10th day of December,1992, if either of his parents is a citizen of India at the time of his birth will be a citizen of India by descent.
- Since 2004, a person shall not be a citizen of India by virtue of this section, unless his birth is registered at an Indian consulate within one year of the date of birth.
C) Citizenship by registration :-
The Central Government may, on an application, register as a citizen of India under section 5 of Citizenship Act 1955 (any person not being an illegal migrant) if he belongs to any of the following categories:
- a person of Indian origin who are ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration;
- a person of Indian origin who is ordinarily resident in any country or place outside undivided India;
- a person who is married to a citizen of India and is ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration.
- minor children of persons who are citizens of India;
- a person of full age and capacity who, or either of his parents, was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India for one year immediately before making an application for registration;
- a person of full age and capacity who has been registered as an overseas citizen of India for five years, and who has been residing in India for one year before making an application for registration.
D) Citizenship by naturalization :-
Citizenship of India can be acquired by an Alien by naturalization in following manner:
- When any person of full age and capacity not being an illegal migrant makes an application for the grant of a certificate of naturalization to him, the Central Government may, if satisfied that the applicant is qualified for naturalization under the provisions of the Third Schedule- (must have lived a total of 12 years in India in a period of 14 years, and must have lived for 12 months uninterrupted in India prior to application for citizenship), grant to him a certificate of naturalization. The conditions specified in the Third Schedule may be waived if in the opinion of the Central Government, the applicant is a person who has rendered distinguished service to the cause of science, philosophy, art, literature, world peace or human progress generally.
- The person to whom a certificate of naturalization is granted under sub-section (1) shall, on taking the oath of allegiance in the form specified in the Second Schedule, be a citizen of India by naturalization as from the date on which that certificate is granted.
Termination/Renunciation of citizenship :-
- Renunciation: Renunciation is covered under Section 8 of the Citizenship Act 1955. If an adult makes a declaration of renunciation of Indian Citizenship , he would lose Indian Citizenship. Along with him, any minor child of that person also loses Indian Citizenship from the date of renunciation. The child has the right to resume Indian Citizenship when he turns eighteen.
- Termination :It is covered under Section 9 of Citizenship Act 1955. Any Indian Citizen who by naturalization or registration acquires the citizenship of another country shall cease to be a Citizen of India.
Indians living Abroad:
Indian Constitution forbids dual citizenship/ nationality which implies that a person cannot have any other countries’ passport simultaneously with the Indian one. Indians living abroad have been classified into three categories : NRI, PIO, OCI. There are minor differences in these three. We shall understand each one separately to deveop a clear concept:
- NRI (Non-Resident Indian) – Holder of Indian passport and temporarily immigrated to another country for six months or more.
- PIO (Persons of Indian Origin) – Holder of Non-Indian passport, and can prove their Indian origin up to three generations. Spouses of Indian citizens or persons of Indian citizens.
- OCI (Overseas Citizens of India) – Persons of Indian origin who are holder of another country’s passport which allows its citizens to hold dual citizenship of some kind. It is not full citizenship of India and hence, does not amount to dual citizenship .
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
Structure of Government of India
The Government in India or the central or the union government is divided into three main sections namely the executive, legislature and the judiciary shown as under. The responsibility of each section of the government is also mentioned along.
Structure of State Government of India
The state legislature or the state assembly in India is headed by the chief minister of that state. The state legislature is divided into two parts namely the vidhan sabha and the vidhan parishad. The governor for the state assemblies is elected by the chief minister himself.
Below a complete flowchart is given about the state legislatures (assemblies) in India to make things more clear.
Structure of Union Territories Administration in India
There are a total of 7 union territories in India namely Delhi, Pondicherry, Daman and Diu, Dadra & Nagar, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The administrative structure of Delhi, Pondicherry is quite different from those of the rest of the union territories.
Go through the flow chart to know the difference between the two sets of UT’s in India.
Structure of Local Government Bodies in India
Village (rural) Administration:
Panchayati Raj: Basic unit of Administration in India, comprising of three levels –
1. Gram (Village) – Gram Panchayat (for one or more than one village)
2. Taluka/Tehsil (Block) – Panchayat Samiti
3. Zila (District) – Zila Panchayat
Gram Panchayat elects one Sarpanch and other members.
Powers and responsibilities of Gram Panchayat:
1. Preparation of the economic development plan and social justice plan.
2. Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice.
3. To levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.
Block Panchayat/Panchayat Samiti comprised of all Aarpanchas of the Panchayat samiti area, the MPs and MLAs of the area, the SDO of the subdivision and some other members from the weaker section of society. Block Panchayat/Panchayat Samiti works for the villages of the tehsil or taluka that together are called a Development Block.
Zila Panchayat Chief of administration is an IAS officer and other members are elected by the Gram Panchayats and Panchayat Samitis.
City (urban) Administration
Mahanagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation ): In Metro cities. At present around 88 Nagar Nigam are in operation. From every ward, there is a Sabhashad, elected by the voters, whereas one Mayor elected separately.
Nagar Palika (Municipality) : Cities having more than 1,00,000 population (there are exceptions as the earlier threshold was 20,000, so all those who have a Nagar Palika earlier, sustains it even though their population is below 1,00,000). From every ward, a member is elected whereas Chairman is elected separately.
Nagar Panchayat/Nagar Parishad (Notified Area Council/City Council): Population more than 11,000 but less than 25,000.
PRESIDENT OF INDIA
The President of India is the head of the executive, legislature and judiciary of the country. Article 52 of the Constitution of India says that there should be a President of India. Article 53 says that all the executive powers of the Union shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him.
Current President of India
Pranab Mukherjee is the current & 13th President of India. He took office on July 25th, 2012. Pranab Mukherjee is a veteran congressman who has served both in the government as well as the opposition. 76 year old Mukherjee has held several high profile portfolios in the government, including FINANCE, Defence & Foreign Ministry. Born in Birbhum district of West Bengal in1935, Mukherjee went on to get a Master’s degree in History & Political Science, as well as a degree in Law . Pranab Mukherjee got a break in politics in 1969,when he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha with the help of Indira Gandhi. Mukherjee briefly left the Congress in the 80s to form his own party – Rashtriya Samajwadi Party, but came back, after he merged the party with the Congress in 1989. Mukherjee ascended in the next two decades to prominence in the Congress party, as one of the key troubleshooters in the party. Once nominated by the UPA for President’s chair, Pranab Mukherjee defeated PA Sangma, winning 70% of the electoral-college vote.
Election of the President
Article 54 of the Indian Constitution discusses the election of the President. It says that the President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college, which consists of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament, and the Legislative Assemblies of the States and the two Union Territories, namely Delhi and Puducherry. The election of the President is held in accordance with a system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. He can be re-elected to the office of the President. The oath of the President is administered by the Chief Justice of India, and in his absence, by the most senior judge of the Supreme Court.
Article 58 of the Indian Constitution says that the presidential candidate must:
- Be a citizen of India.
- Have completed the age of thirty-five years.
- Be qualified for elections as a member of the Lok Sabha.
- Not hold any office of profit under the Union or any State government, or any local or other authority.
Term of office
Article 56 of the Indian Constitution says that the President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date he takes up his post. He may resign from his office by writing his resignation to the Vice-President of India. But, he will continue to hold his office, in spite of tendering his resignation, until his successor takes up his office. And, before his office gets vacated, an election should be held for the same.
Article 61 provides for the manner in which he can be impeached on the violation of the Constitution. The Vice-President acts as his substitute in case his office falls vacant on the grounds of his death, resignation or impeachment or otherwise. Such a vacancy should be filled by an election necessarily taking place within six months of his office falling vacant.
Impeachment of President
Impeachment is the process to remove the President of India from his office before his term expires. The Impeachment can be carried out if the Constitution of India is violated by the President and the proceedings can be initiated in either of the two houses of the Parliament. Two-thirds majority is required to pass the resolution in the House. Thereafter, a notice signed by a quarter of the members of the House and containing the charges is sent to the President. After 14 days the charges are taken into consideration by the other House and in the meantime the President can defend himself. If the charges are approved by the second House also then the President is said to have been impeached. He has to leave his office.
Powers of President
The President of India is vested with the Executive, Legislative, Emergency, Diplomatic, Judicial and Military powers.
All the executive powers of the Union shall be vested in him. These powers should be exercised by him in accordance with the Constitution of India. He appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. He also appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts in the states, besides appointing the Attorney General and Comptroller and auditor General of India. Among other critical powers, he enjoys the pardoning power, whereby he can pardon the death sentence awarded to a convict.
He can dissolve the Lok Sabha and end a session of the Parliament. He can also address the Parliament in its first session every year. He can nominate 12 members to the Rajya Sabha. These members must have extra ordinary accomplishments in the fields of science, art, literature and social service. He can also nominate 2 members to the Lok Sabha from the Anglo-Indian Community. When a bill is passed by the Parliament, the President can give or withhold his assent to it. He can also return it to the Parliament, unless it’s a Money Bill or a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
He can declare national, state and financial emergency. National emergency can be declared on the grounds of war, external aggression or armed rebellion in the country. This can be done on the written request of the Cabinet Ministers after the proclamation has been approved by the Parliament. State emergency can be imposed in a state if it fails to run constitutionally. Financial emergency can be proclaimed if there is a likelihood of the financial instability in the country.
Only when the President recommends can a money bill be introduced in the Parliament. He lays the Union budget before the Parliament and makes advances out of the Contingency Fund.
Diplomatic, Military and Judicial powers
He appoints ambassadors and high commissioners to other countries. All international treaties are signed on his behalf. Under Military powers, he can declare war and conclude peace. He appoints Chief of Army, Navy and Air Force. He can dismiss judges if two-third majority of the members present of the two Houses of the Parliament pass the resolution to that effect.
Salary and residence of President of India
The salary and allowances of the President are fixed by the Parliament of India. The current salary of the President is Rs 150000 per month. His official residence is Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi.
GOVERNORS OF INDIAN STATES
Role of Governor of India
The Governor is the head of a state just like the President is the head of the republic. The Governor is the nominal head of a state, while the Chief Minister is the executive head. All executive actions of the state are taken in the name of the Governor. However, in reality he merely gives his consent to the various executive actions. He or she is devoid of taking any major decisions. The real powers in the executive dealings of a state rest with the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers.
According to an amendment in the Constitution of India, brought about in 1956, the same person can be the Governor of two or more states. Apart from the governors in the states, Lieutenant governors are appointed in Union Territories of Delhi, Andaman Nicobar Island and Pudducherry. All other union-territories are governed by an Administrative Head (an IAS officer). The only exception is Chandigarh. The governor of Punjab is also the lieutenant governor of Chandigarh.
The powers of the Lieutenant Governor of a union-territory are equivalent to the powers of a Governor of a state in India. Both are appointed by the President of India for a term of 5 years.
Powers of the Governor
Like the President of India, the Governor of a state has certain executive, legislative and judicial powers. He or she also possesses certain discretionary or emergency powers. But, unlike the President, the Governor does not have any diplomatic or military powers.
- The Governor has the power to appoint the Council of Ministers including the Chief Minister of the state, the Advocate General and the members of the State Public Service Commission. However, the Governor cannot remove the members of the State Public Service Commission as they can only be removed by an order of the President.
- The Governor is consulted by the President in the appointment of the Judges of the state High Court.
- The Governor appoints Judges of the District Courts.
- In case the Governor feels that the Anglo-Indian community has not been adequately represented in the Vidhan Sabha, he or she can nominate one member of the community to the Legislative Assembly of the state.
- In all the states where a bicameral legislature is present, the Governor has a right to nominate the members, who are “persons having special knowledge or practical experience in matters such as literature, science, art, co-operative movement and social service”, to the Legislative Council.
- As the Governor is said to be a part of the State Legislature, he has the right of addressing and sending messages, summoning, deferring and dissolving the State Legislature, just like the President has, in respect to the Parliament. Although these are formal powers, in reality, the Governor must be guided by the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers before making such decisions.
- The Governor inaugurates the state legislature and the first session of each year, by addressing the Assembly, outlining the new administrative policies of the ruling government.
- The Governor lays before the State Legislature, the annual financial statement and also makes demands for grants and recommendation of ‘Money Bills’.
- The Governor constitutes the State FINANCE Commission. He also holds the power to make advances out of the Contingency Fund of the State in the case of any unforeseen circumstances.
- The Governor has the power to promulgate an ordinance when the Legislative Assembly is not in session, and a law has to be brought into effect immediately. However, the ordinance is presented in the state legislature in the next session, and remains operative for a total of six weeks, unless it is approved by the legislature.
All bills passed by the Legislative Assembly become a law, only after the Governor approves them. In case it is not a money bill, the Governor holds the right to send it back to the Vidhan Sabha for reconsideration. But if the Vidhan Sabha sends back the Bill to the Governor the second time, then he has to sign it.
- he Governor can grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishments. He can also suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of an offence against the law.
- The Governor is consulted by the President in the appointment of the Chief Justice to the High Court of that particular state.
- In case no political party bags a majority in the Vidhan Sabha of the state, the Governor holds the power to use his discretion to select the Chief Minister.
- The Governor informs the President in an official report, of a particular emergency arisen in the state, and imposes ‘President’s Rule’ on the behalf of the President. The Governor, in such circumstances, overrides the advice or functions of the Council of Ministers, and directs upon himself, the workings of the state.
As per the Constitution of India, the following are the eligibility criteria for the appointment of the Governor in a particular state:
- He or she must be a citizen of India.
- He or she must have completed 35 years of age.
- He or she must not hold any other office of profit.
- He or she must not be a member of the Legislature of the Union or of any other state. There is no bar to the selection of a Governor from amongst the members of the Legislature, provided that on appointment, he or she immediately ceases to be a Member of the Legislature.
Salary of the Governor
The monthly salary of a Governor is Rs 1,10,000, as specified in the Governor’s (Emoluments, Allowances and Privileges) Act of 1982. The Governor is also entitled to certain benefits and allowances, which shall not be diminished during his office term of five years.
Facilities for the Governor
In addition to the monthly salary, the Governor is entitled to a number of special facilities such as medical facilities, residence facilities, traveling facilities, reimbursement of phone and electricity bills, and many other allowances. The Governor is provided an official residence free of rent. The Governor and his or her family is also provided free medical attendance for life. A fixed amount of money is also allotted as the Governor’s traveling expenses across the country.
Selection Process of the Governor
The Governor is not elected by the process of direct or indirect voting (like the Chief Minister, the Prime Minister or the President). The Governor of a particular state is appointed directly by the President of India, for a period of five years. The Governor must meet all the eligibility criteria enumerated above, to be appointed by the President.
Duty Term of the Governor
A governor of a state in India holds office for a period of five years, but it is subject to termination earlier if:
- The Governor is dismissed by the President, at whose pleasure he holds the office. In reality, the President is advised by the Prime Minister of the country, who decides the dismissal of the Governor of a state, usually on the grounds of gross delinquency namely corruption, bribery and violation of the Constitution.
- The Governor resigns from his post. There is no retirement age of the Governor, as he or she stays in office for a fixed term. There is no provision for a Governor to be impeached from office, unlike that of a President.
Pension of the Governor
A Governor of a particular state is entitled to a fixed pension, as per the Constitution of India. In August 2013, a Bill for hike in pension for the Governor was initiated. Besides a fixed pension, a Governor is also entitled to emoluments such as secretarial allowances and medical benefits for life.
The Residence of the Governor
As the Governor is the nominal head of a particular state in India, he or she is entitled to reside in the Raj Bhavan of that state, during his or her term of office. Like the President of India who resides in the Rashtrapati Bhavan in Delhi, each state has a Raj Bhavan, which is allotted to the Governor and his family. The Governor must vacate the Raj Bhavan on the expiry of his or her term of office.
The first woman to become a Governor of a state in India was Sarojini Naidu. She was the Governor of Uttar Pradesh from 15 August 1947 till her demise on 2 March 1949.
VICE PRESIDENT OF INDIA
About Vice President of India
Role of the Vice President
According to the Constitution of India, the office of the Vice President is the second highest constitutional post in independent India. The Vice President is the ‘ex-officio’ Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha. The office of the Vice President in India is complementary to that of the President, in that, the Vice President takes over the role of the President in the latter’s absence. In other words, the role of the Vice President is to assist the President in being the nominal head of the Republic of India. However, one must remember that the office of the President and the Vice President cannot be combined in one person, as per the Constitution of India.
Powers and Functions of the Vice President
The Vice President of India, after the President, is the highest dignitary of India, and certain powers are attached to the office of the Vice President. These are:
- The Vice President shall discharge the functions of the President during the temporary absence of the President due to illness or any other cause due to which the President is unable to carry out his functions.
- The Vice President shall act as the President, in case of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation, removal through impeachment or otherwise. The Vice President shall take over the duties of the President until a new President is elected and resumes office.
- The Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States.
- When the Vice President acts as, or discharges the functions of the President, he or she immediately ceases to perform the normal functions of being the Chairman of the Council of States.
The qualifications needed to become a Vice President of India are the following:
- He or she must be a citizen of India.
- He or she must be over 35 years of age.
- He or she must not hold any office of profit.
- He or she must be qualified for election as a Member of the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States.
Salary of the Vice President
The Vice President is entitled to receiving the salary of the Chairman of the Council of States, which presently amounts to Rs 1,25,000 per month. However, when the Vice President performs the functions of the President or discharges the duties of the President, in the latter’s temporary absence, he is entitled to the salary as well as special privileges of the President.
Facilities for the Vice President
The Vice President, unlike the President, is not entitled to any special emoluments and privileges during his term of office. However, when he discharges the duties of the President in the latter’s absence, the Vice President enjoys all the benefits that are enjoyed by the President, during that tenure.
Selection Process of the Vice President
Like the election of the President, the election of the Vice President is indirect and in accordance with the system of proportional representation, through the concept of a single transferable vote by secret ballot. The electoral college, which consists of members of both houses of the Parliament, cast their votes to elect the Vice President. However, there is a slight difference in the election of the Vice President and that of the President. The members of the State Legislatures have no role to play in the election of the Vice President, unlike that of the President.
The Election Commission of India, which holds elections in the country, is responsible for ensuring that free and fair elections to the post of a Vice President are held in the following steps:
- A Returning Officer who is appointed for the elections, sends out public notices issuing the date of election to the office of the Vice President. The elections for the same must be held within a period of 60 days of the expiry of the term of office of the previous Vice President.
- The nomination of candidates to the office of a Vice President must be affirmed by 20 electors (Members of Parliament) who act as proposers, and 20 electors who act as seconders.
- Each candidate must deposit a total of Rs 15,000 to the Reserve Bank of India, as part of the nomination process.
- The Returning Officer carefully scrutinises and adds to the ballot, the names of all eligible candidates.
- The elections are then held by proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. The nominated candidates can also cast their votes.
- The Returning Officer declares the results to the electoral college, the Central Government and the Election Commission of India, respectively. The name of the Vice President is then officially announced by the Central Government.
Duty Term or Period of the Vice President
The office of the Vice President is for a period of five years. There is no fixed retirement age to the Vice President, as he or she can remain in the post for five years. However, he or she can be re-elected as the Vice President for any number of times. The office of the Vice President can also terminate earlier before the fixed five-year term, either by resignation or by removal by the President. There is no formal process of impeachment for the removal of the Vice President, and a removal proceeding can be initiated when members of the Rajya Sabha vote against the Vice President in an effective majority and members of Lok Sabha agree to this decision in a simple majority. A total of 14 days advance notice must be given prior to the initiation of the removal proceedings of the Vice President. In such cases, when a temporary vacancy in the office of the Vice President is created, the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha takes over the role of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
Pension of the Vice President
Although there is no particular fixed pension in the Constitution for the Vice President of India, according to the Vice President’s Pension Act of 1997, the pension of the Vice President is half of the salary that he/she is entitled to, during his term of office.
Residence of the Vice President
Unlike the President, the Vice President is not allotted any special residential privileges while in office. While the President of India stays in the Rastrapati Bhavan, the Vice President is not subject to any such benefits during his or her tenure as the Vice President.
- Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the first Vice President of independent India, elected to the office in 1952.
- The only Vice President to be re-elected for a second term was Dr. S Radhakrishnan, who again became the Vice President in the year 1957.
- No Vice President, in the history of independent India, has had to face removal proceedings before the expiry of the term of office.
- K R Narayanan, Shankar Dayal Sharma, R Venkataraman, V V Giri, Zakir Hussain and Dr. S Radhakrishnan, each of whom was a President of India at different points in time, remained Vice Presidents before they were elected as Presidents.
- The present Vice President of India, Mohammad Hamid Ansari, has served as an ambassador to many countries across the world, such as U.A.E, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Iran and others.
List of Vice Presidents
|Mohammad Hamid Ansari||Aug 11, 2007||Incumbent||Pratibha Patil|
|Mohammad Hamid Ansari||Pranab Mukherjee|
|Bhairon Singh Shekhawat||Aug 19, 2002||Jul 21, 2007||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|Krishan Kant||Aug 21, 1992||Jul 24, 1997||Kocheril Raman Narayanan|
|Aug 21, 1997||Jul 27, 2002||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|Kocheril Raman Narayanan||Sep 3, 1987||Jul 24, 1992||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Shankar Dayal Sharma||Sep 3, 1987||Jul 24, 1992||Ramaswamy Venkataraman|
|Ramaswamy Venkataraman||Aug 31, 1984||Jul 24, 1987||Giani Zail Singh|
|Justice Muhammad Hidayatullah||Aug 31, 1979||Aug 30, 1984||Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy|
|Basappa Danappa Jatti||Aug 31, 1974||Aug 30, 1979||Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed|
|Gopal Swarup Pathak||Aug 31, 1969||Aug 30, 1974||Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri|
|Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri||May 13, 1967||May 3, 1969||Dr. Zakir Hussain|
|Dr. Zakir Hussain||May 13, 1962||May 12, 1967||Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan||May 13, 1952||May 12, 1962||Dr. Rajendra Prasad|
PARLIAMENT OF INDIA – STRUCTURE AND FACTS
The Parliament of India or the legislature is divided into two houses namely the upper and the lower house or two sabhas namely the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is also called the Lower house and the Rajya Sabha can be addressed as the Upper house .
Top 10 Facts about the Indian Parliament
1. The Parliament of India is circular which represents “Continuity”
2. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are horse shoe in shape.
3. Lok Sabha carpet is green in color which represents that India is an Agriculture land and the people here are elected from grass root level, Rajya Sabha carpet is red in color which denotes royalty and also tells about the sacrifice done by the freedom fighters.
4. The library in the Indian Parliament is the second largest in India.
5. Circumference of Parliament is 1/3rd of a mile i.e. 536.33m
6. The first hour (i.e. between 11 to 12 noon) is known as the Question Hour. During this MPs put forward questions about the policies, government and different bills.
7. Around 12 noon MPs can discuss any important topic with prior notice to the Speaker. This is known as Zero Hour.
8. President’s office is in Room number 13 of Parliament ( 13 no. is not so unlucky in this case).
9. Parliament canteen is the cheapest in the country with 3 course veg meal in 61 Rs and Chicken Biryani for Rs. 51 (Highest amount in the list)
10. Voting in Parliament is done electronically for the questions asked, amendments, new bills etc. There is a voting console, a system with colored buttons, green for a Yes, Red for No and Yellow for abstain.
PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA
About Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India is the head of the executive branch of the Government of India. His position is distinct from that of the President of India, who is the head of the State. As India follows a parliamentary system of government modelled after the Westminster system, most of the executive powers are exercised by the Prime Minister. He acts as an advisor to the President and is the leader of the Council of Ministers. The President appoints the Prime Minister of India and on his advice, appoints the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister can be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.
Roles and Responsibilities of Prime Minister
The roles and responsibilities of the Prime Minister are as follows:
Link between President and Council of Ministers:
The Prime Minister is the leader of the Council of Ministers and serves as the channel of communication between the President and the Council of Ministers. It is his duty to communicate to the President all the decisions taken by the Council of Ministers and to provide information regarding administration of the Union or proposals for the legislature as called for by the President.
Allocation of Portfolios:
He allocates portfolios among the ministers and distributes work among various ministries and offices. The Prime Minister coordinates work among various ministries and departments through the Cabinet Secretariat.
In-Charge of Ministries:
Prime Minister also retains certain portfolios that are not allocated to other ministers. He is generally in charge of the following ministries/departments:
- Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions
- Ministry of Planning
- Department of Atomic Energy
- Department of Space
- Appointments Committee of the Cabinet
Leader of the Cabinet:
The Prime Minister summons and presides over meetings of the cabinet and determines what business shall be transacted in these meetings.
Link between the Parliament and the Cabinet:
The Prime Minister is also the link between the cabinet and the Parliament. He is the chief spokesperson of the government in the Parliament, along with the leader of the party in majority in the Lok Sabha. It is his responsibility to announce important policy decisions. The Prime Minister can also intervene in debates of general importance in the Parliament to clarify the government’s stand or policy.
The Prime Minister represents India in various delegations, high-level meetings and international organisations and also addresses the nation on various occasions of national importance.
Powers/Authorities of Prime Minister
The various powers and authorities enjoyed by the Prime Minister are as follows:
Head of the Government:
The Prime Minister of India is the head of the Government. Though the President is the head of the State, most of the executive decisions are taken by the Prime Minister. All the important decision-making bodies in India, like the Union Cabinet and the Planning Commission, run under his supervision.
Leader of the Council of Ministers:
As far as the Prime Minister’s relation to the Council of Ministers is concerned, his position is that of “First among Equals”. In the case of death or resignation of the Prime Minister, the entire Council of Ministers has to resign. The ministers directly report to the Prime Minister. He can also remove a minister by asking for his resignation or having him dismissed by the President. If any difference of opinion arises between the Prime Minister and any other minister, the opinion of the Prime Minister prevails.
Leader of the Parliament:
The Prime Minister is the Leader of the House to which he belongs. He can also take part in debates in the House of which he is not a member. He can also advise the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha.
Representative of the Country:
In international affairs, he is the spokesperson of the country. The Prime Minister plays a major role in directing India’s foreign policy.
Facilities offered to Prime Minister
Some of the amenities provided to the Indian Prime Minister are:
- Official residence: 7, Race Course Road or “Panchavati”
- Personal staff Special Protection Group (SPG) who is responsible for his security
- Prime Ministerial car (currently BMW 750i)
- Exclusive aircraft (Air India One)
Selection Process of Prime Minister
The Constitution states that the President of India should appoint the leader of the party or alliance which is in majority in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister of India. In case no party or alliance enjoys majority, the President appoints the leader of the largest party or alliance as the Prime Minister. But he has to win the confidence vote in the Lower House of the Parliament as early as possible. A member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha can be appointed as the Prime Minister. If he is not a member of either House of the Parliament then he has to be elected to either House within six months of his appointment. As the Prime Minister, he is the Leader of the House of which he is a member.
Term and Retirement Age of Prime Minister
Unlike the President, the Prime Minister does not have a fixed tenure. The full term of the Prime Minister is five years, which coincides with the normal life of the Lok Sabha. However, the term can end sooner if he loses the vote of confidence in the Lower House. So, it can be said that he remains in power as long as he enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister can also resign by writing to the President.
There are no term limits on the office of the Prime Minister. There is also no official retirement age.
Eligibility Criteria to become Prime Minister of India
To be eligible for the position of the Prime Minister of India, a person should:
- Be a citizen of India.
- Be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.
- Complete 25 years of age if he is a member of the Lok Sabha or 30 years if he is a member of the Rajya Sabha.
A person cannot be the Prime Minister of India if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India, the government of any state, or any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said governments.
Salary of Prime Minister of India
According to Article 75 of the Constitution of India, the salary of the Prime Minister is decided by the Parliament and revised from time to time. As on 31 July 2012 the monthly pay and allowances of the Prime Minister of India was Rs. 1,60,000 (US $2,600).
Pay and Allowance of the Prime Minister on 31 July 2012 (in rupees)
|Daily Allowance||62,000 (@ 2,000 per day)|
Former Prime Ministers of India are provided with:
- Rent-free accommodation for lifetime.
- Medical facilities, 14 secretarial staff, office expenses against actual expenditure, six domestic executive-class flight tickets, and unlimited
- free train travels for first five years.
SPG cover for one year.
After five years: One personal assistant and peon, free air and train tickets and Rs. 6,000 for office expenses.
Where does the Prime Minister Live?
The official residence of the Indian Prime Minister is 7, Race Course Road. It is also his main workplace. The official name of the residence is “Panchavati”. It was built in the 1980s. The entire complex spreads over an area of 12 acres and comprises five bungalows. When a person is appointed as the new Prime Minister, his predecessor vacates the residence and the incumbent is advised to move to his official residence at the earliest.
Interesting Facts about Indian Prime Ministers
- Jawaharlal Nehru was the longest serving Indian Prime Minister, starting from India’s independence in 1947 to his death in 1964.
- Gulzari Lal Nanda served twice as the acting Prime Minister of India after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru and Lal Bahadur Shastri.
- Indira Gandhi was named “Woman of the Millennium” in a poll organised by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1999.
- Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was the first woman to receive the Bharat Ratna. She was also awarded Bangladesh’s highest civilian award “Bangladesh Swadhinata Samman” in 2011.
- Morarji Desai was the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India. He was also the first Prime Minister to resign without completing his full term.
- Morarji Desai is the only Indian Prime Minister to be conferred upon the Nishaan-e-Pakistan (Pakistan’s highest civilian award).
- Rajiv Gandhi was the youngest Indian Prime Minister; he assumed office at the age of 40.
- Rajiv Gandhi was the first Prime Minister of India to live in 7, Race Course.
- P.V. Narasimha Rao was the first Prime Minister from South India.
- H.D. Deve Gowda was the first Prime Minister of India who was a member of the Rajya Sabha.
- Dr. Manmohan Singh was the longest-serving Prime Minister of India who was a member of the Rajya Sabha (2004-2014).
List of Former Prime Ministers of India
Since independence in 1947, India has had 15 different Prime Ministers till now. There have been many outstanding leaders from different political parties who held India’s top post. Some of them served a complete five-year term while others governed the nation for more than five years. With Narendra Modi as the present Prime Minister, let’s take a look at the legacy left behind by the Prime Ministers of India since 1947.
|Name||Took office||Left office||Party|
|Shri. Narendra Modi||May 26, 2014||Incumbent||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Dr. Manmohan Singh||May 22, 2004||May 26, 2014||Indian National Congress|
|Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee||Mar 19, 1998||May 22, 2004||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Shri Inder Kumar Gujral||Apr 21, 1997||Mar 19, 1998||Janata Dal|
|Shri H. D. Deve Gowda||Jun 1, 1996||Apr 21, 1997||Janata Dal|
|Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee||May 16, 1996||Jun 1, 1996||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao||Jun 21, 1991||May 16, 1996||Congress (I)|
|Shri Chandra Shekhar||Nov 10, 1990||Jun 21, 1991||Janata Dal (S)|
|Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh||Dec 2, 1989||Nov 10, 1990||Janata Dal|
|Shri Rajiv Gandhi||Oct 31, 1984||Dec 2, 1989||Congress (I)|
|Smt. Indira Gandhi||Jan 14, 1980||Oct 31, 1984||Congress (I)|
|Shri Charan Singh||Jul 28, 1979||Jan 14, 1980||Janata Party|
|Shri Morarji Desai||Mar 24, 1977||Jul 28, 1979||Janata Party|
|Smt. Indira Gandhi||Jan 24, 1966||Mar 24, 1977||Congress|
|Shri Gulzari Lal Nanda||Jan 11, 1966||Jan 24, 1966||Congress|
|Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri||Jun 9, 1964||Jan 11, 1966||Congress|
|Shri Gulzari Lal Nanda||May 27, 1964||Jun 9, 1964||Congress|
|Shri Jawaharlal Nehru||Aug 15, 1947||May 27, 1964||Congress|
MUNICIPAL CORPORATION IN INDIA
About Municipal Corporation in India
The urban local government which works for the development of any Metropolitan City with a population of more than one million is known as the Municipal Corporation in India. The members of the Municipal Corporation are directly elected by the people andare called Councillors.
Who are the members of a Municipal Corporation
The Municipal Corporation consists of a committee which includes a Mayor with Councillors. The Corporations provide necessary community services to the Metropolitan Cities and are formed under the Corporation Act of 1835 of Panchayati Raj system. The Mayor heads the Municipal Corporation. The corporation remains under the charge of Municipal Commissioner. The Executive Officers along with the Mayor and Councillors monitor and implement the programs related to planning the development of the corporation. The number of Councillors also depends upon the area and population of the city. In India, the four metropolitan cities; Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, have the largest corporations.
Who conducts Municipal Corporation Elections
The elections to the Municipal Corporations are conducted under the guidance, direction, superintendence and control of the State Election Commission. The corporations fall under the State government jurisdiction, therefore there are no uniform provisions for the election of the municipal bodies. In some States, the elections are organised by the state governments, while in some states, the Executive Officers arrange the same.
How are Municipal Corporation Elections conducted?
The members of the Municipal Corporation are elected by the people through direct elections. The elections are held for a particular ward in the city. The electoral roll of a particular ward elects the representative or Councillor for their ward. The electoral roll for each ward is divided in to one or several parts depending upon the area within the ward where the voters of each part reside. This means that the voters included in each part belong to a street or a road or a named area within that ward. The voters from all the parts together form the electoral roll of a particular ward.
Qualification for contesting Municipal Corporation elections
A person can contest elections for Municipal Corporation if he/she fulfills the following criteria:
- She/he must be a citizen of India
- She/he must have attained the age of 21 years
- His/her name is registered in the Electoral Roll of a ward
- She/he is not earlier disqualified for contesting Municipal Corporation elections.
- She/he must not be an employee of any Municipal Corporation in India
There are few seats which are reserved for scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, backward classes and women. Every candidate’s nomination form should have a declaration stating the class, caste, or tribe that she/he belongs to. There should be a declaration that the candidate is a woman, in case the seat is reserved for a women candidate.
The Term of a Municipal Corporation
The office of Municipal Corporation runs for a period of five years since the beginning of its first meeting. It is subject to dissolution under various circumstances:
- If the State finds the Corporation lagging in its duties
- If the State finds the corporation exceeding or abusing its power
- Declaration of the Municipal elections in the State as void, or withdrawal of the entire area of the ward from the municipal operations.
Functions of Municipal Corporation
The Municipal Corporation looks after providing the essential services to the people of that district/area which includes:
- Water Supply
- Market places
- Fire Brigades
- Over Bridge
- Solid Waste
- Street Lightning
- Birth and Death Records in the Area
Roles and Duties of a Councillor
The Councillors under the Municipal Corporations perform the following duties:
- To work towards the welfare and interests of the municipality as a whole.
- To participate in the council meetings, council committee meetings and meetings of other related bodies.
- To participate in developing and evaluating the programs and policies of the municipality
- To keep the privately discussed matters in council meetings in confidence.
- To get all the information from the chief administrative officer about the operation and administration of the municipality.
- To perform any other similar or necessary duties.