Brief Notes on Constitution of India

A constitution is a fundamental legal document according to which the government of a country functions. It is the basic law which defines and delimits the main organs of government and their jurisdiction as well as the basic rights of the citizens.A Constitution, thus, is superior to all other laws of the country and no law can be enacted which is not in conformity with the constitution.A government looks after law and order in a society. It does so by making laws and maintaining order. But a government cannot make laws and administer a country according to its own whims and forces.Every government has to function in conformity with basic law of the land. The Constitution contains those laws which act as the source according to which the rules and regulations of governing a country are framed.A democratic government is one in which the citizens participate in the functioning of the government, directly or indirectly. It is a government in which the government’s powers are limited and clearly spelt out.Conversely, it is also a government under which citizen’s rights is also given clearly. Now, how are these limits placed on the activity of the Government? This is done by what is called a constitution.A Constitution is considered the source of powers and authority of government. It lays down precisely what the powers of a particular government agency are what this it can, or cannot do.The idea is to minimize confusion and conflict of operation between the various organs of the government. A constitution is concerned with two aspects-the relation between different organs of government; , and between the government and the citizens.More than anything else a Constitution is an instrument of controlling the abuse of power by the government. That is why the Constitution is a very important document.Indian constitutionPreamble“We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens: Justice, Social, Economic and Political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation; in our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution”.The Preamble sets out what the objectives of Indian government the kind of value system the Constitution wishes to set up in India. It declares India a sovereign state. Sovereignty means absolute independence, a government which is not controlled by any other power. When India was under British rule, it could not be called a sovereign country.Besides, the Constitution provides for democratic society in India. Here every citizen enjoys equal political rights. The country is governed by the elected representatives of the people.There is no state religion of India. The state does not favor people of any particular religion. The citizens are free to follow and practice the religion of their own choice. The Constitution also declares socialism to be one of the objectives.The ideal of equality remains incomplete if it is restricted only to the political sphere. It must extend to social and economic life too. The Preamble declares India to be a Republic. It means that the head of the state is not a monarch, but a president indirectly elected by the people.Secular Government The government under the Indian Constitution has to be secular. This means that the government must not formulate policies which discriminate between various religious communities which live in India.Universal Adult FranchiseIndian constitution establishes a system of universal adult franchise. Under this system, every Indian citizen above the age of 18 years has the right to vote and participate in choosing the government.Building a Just SocietyIndian constitution has one part dealing with the fundamental rights and fundamental duties of the citizens. Another part contains provisions which are called directive principles of the state policy. These are instructions which the Constitution gives to the States (the government at both the central and the state level) for achieving a just society in India.Indian Constitution, also, has several provisions which seek to protect the interest of those people who have been traditionally poor and socially deprived, the directing the state to give him work.But if he is jailed by the policy without reason, he can go to the courts. And the courts will direct the government to free him. The government must obey courts’ order.Fundamental DutiesFundamental Duties have been incorporated by the forty-second Amendment of the Constitution, with the purpose of making citizens patriotic, help them to follow a code of conduct that would strengthen the nation, protect its sovereignty and integrity of India.(i) To defend the country and render national service when required,(ii) To promote the common brotherhood of all people in India and renounce any practice derogatory to the dignity of women,(iii) To value and preserve the rich heritage of the nation’s composite character,(iv) To protect and improve natural environment and have compassion for living creatures,(v) To develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of inquiry,(vi) To safeguard public property and abjure violence, and(vii) To strive for excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.

What is the Relationship between Liberty and Equality?

Liberty, as we defined it, is moral freedom, and equality is essential to it, for without equality, the price of liberty for me might be the denial of liberty for you.Liberty and equality both go together in claims to fundamental rights. But the two have not always and everywhere been claimed with equal fervour.On the whole, the Anglo-Saxons have seemed to place more emphasis on liberty, while the French have always sought, first and foremost, to secure recognition of the principle of equality.This difference of emphasis may be explained as the result of different political evolutions or of different national characteristics. It is also possible to explain it by saying that, in reality, one or the other has to be chosen, because the two demands are really incompatible, that, as Lord Acton said, “the passion for equality makes vain the hope of freedom.”Whether equality is a condition of liberty or is in reality incompatible with it is a question which need clearly be answered, as it affects our whole conception of rights and duties. According to the Marxist thesis conditions of economic equality alone make possible the necessary conditions of liberty. Economic equality, it asserts, can only be achieved through revolution and dictatorship of the proletariat.The dictatorship of the proletariat uses all the power at its disposal to destroy Capitalism and to establish in its place Socialism, that is, to re-distribute material benefits which hitherto were enjoyed by some, the capitalist class, at the expense of others, the working class. For constructing a Socialist society the dictatorship of the proletariat may be INVESTED with oppressive and autocratic powers.It may even regiment the faculties of men to a particular way of life. Once Socialism has been established, the State becomes superfluous and it must ‘wither away’. The emerging society is a stateless and classless society where men will really be free. Equality is, therefore, an end to which men are led by a revolution.But in a democratic State means cannot be divorced from the end, or to put it in simple language, “democracies assume that, in so far as it is humanly possible, they must not do evil that good may come.”Freedom, therefore, is something that can be created by free men and the citizens themselves decide both what constitutes their freedom and also the means which they will employ to achieve their end. Good means must be adopted for a good end and for the attainment of liberty a considerable measure of equality is necessary.Unrestrained freedom for every individual to satisfy his appetite for wealth and power is not the condition of liberty. Whenever and wherever such a freedom has existed it resulted in the degeneration of the social order. Great inequalities make impossible the attainment of freedom for the less fortunate.Those who are wealthy and possess the means to control the government constitute a class of vested interests and they use their authority and privileges for perpetuating inequalities. This hampers the freedom of those who are deprived of the opportunities they need for their self-expression and self-development.Freedom means security and security demands the removal of those inequalities that place the weak at the mercy of the strong. Equality, which aims to end this glaring contrast, is, therefore, the true basis of liberty.Without equality, liberty is a mere mockery. Civil liberty can only be ensured when all are equal in the eyes of law, the same law for all and no privileged classes or individuals exempt from its provisions.Political liberty provides equal status for all citizens and equal opportunities for their participation in the affairs of the State. It raises the common man on the pedestal of political glory.A society in which there exist gross inequalities in property can assure neither civil nor political liberty. Liberty consists in reciprocity, or, as Aristotle has said, friendship. There can be no friendship, that is, fellow-feeling, among people having unequal standards of living, education and culture.”If liberty means the power of expansion in human spirit, it is rarely presented save in a society of equals. Where there are rich and poor, educated and uneducated, we find always masters and servants.” There can be no liberty for servants who are ever recipients of orders.Inequalities of property also inevitably bring inequalities of treatment and right. There is no justice for the poor in a society of unequals. Equality in justice is a primary condition of justice.A magistrate who convicts a poor thief but acquits the one who is rich, ascribing the guilt of the latter to a nervous disease does so because of differences in the economic status of the two, though the nature of offence in both the cases is the same.Such differences in the administration of law are dependent, not upon the law itself, but the social results of the inequality of wealth. Things seem wicked in the poor which are not wicked in the rich.Only a movement towards the equality of wealth can remove such injustices. All those countries which have moved towards the attainment of real liberty have, in fact, striven to remove economic inequalities.The Directive Principles of State Policy contained in the Indian Constitution declare the ideal of the Welfare State and emphasise that the regulatory State of the past has given place to the service State of today.Article 38 of the Constitution clearly prescribes that “the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may, a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.”The State shall, in particular, direct its policy so that wealth, its sources of production and its means of distribution shall not be concentrated in the hands of the few, but shall be distributed as to sub-serve common good. But nothing tangible has been achieved so far and the yawning disparities still plague the Indian Society.In the United States discrimination against blacks is longstanding and pervasive. The officials of the National Institute of Health told the Post Office and Civil Service Subcommittee on July 14, 1993, that the Institute had clustered black employees in low-paying jobs with little chance of advancement.Allegation of crimes against women had earlier been made against National Institute of Health by a consultant’s report, but no one had ever been disciplined for racial bias.Liberty and equality are, therefore, not incompatible. Equality is an aid to liberty. Tawney has aptly said that “a large measure of equality, so far being inimical to liberty, is essential to it.” Even Lord Acton did not find equality incompatible with liberty. What he found incompatible was “the passion for equality.”And if the equalitarian communities, Utopian or Communist, have been found unworkable and subjected to criticism, it is because equality is regarded as an end rather than a means to an end. If equality becomes a passion instead of an instrument, then liberty may be diminished by equalitarian measures as Marxism suggests

How does a bill become an Act in the Indian Parliament?

Parliament frames laws for the country. Any member of the House can introduce a resolution for the purpose of making law. That resolution is to be introduced in the House in a special form & the resolution which is placed before the House in a special form is called Bill. Hence, the resolutions which are introduced in the Parliament for the purpose of ranking laws or changing old laws of amending the constitution are called Bills. The Bill is passed by both the Houses & then it is sent to the President for his assent & then it becomes a law. But before the Bill becomes a law it is to pass through so many stages.

Kinds of Bill

The constitution divides Bills into three categories on (1) Money Bills, Ordinary Bill & Constitutional Amendment Bill. The Bill is to pass through so many stages before it becomes a Law. The Bill is discussed & debated thoroughly in these stages. These stages are mentioned below.Introduction of the BillAn ordinary Bill can be introduced in any House & by any member of the House. But a member can introduce the Bill in the same House of which he is a member. The mover of the Bill is to give a notice to this effect a month earlier. The admission of the notice brings a particular Bill on the agenda or the order of the day. There is no need for the ministers to give a months’ notice for this purpose. The agenda of the House or the programme of the House is prepared by the Cabinet & they can fix the date of the introduction of their Bill. Money Bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha & not in the Rajyasabha. Money Bill can only be introduced by the ministers and not by the ordinary members of the House.On the fixed date the mover of the Bill seeks the permission of the House of moving the Bill & it is very much a formality. On getting the permission of the House he only reads the title of the Bill. After this, he gives a copy of the Bill to the check of the House. It is called the introduction of the Bills. The Bill is sent to the Gazette of India for publication & its copies are distributed among the members of the House. The Government Bill can be published in the government gazette even without introducing them in the House & this method has been generally adopted.First readingAfter the introduction there is a first reading of the Bill. Sometimes there is a first reading of the Bill just after the introductory stage. Sometimes another date is fixed for the first reading of the Bill. On the fixed date the mover of the Bill stands up at his place & requests that the Bill should be read for the time. On getting permission of the House he explains the main principles & objects of the Bill. After this other members of the House express their opinions in favor or against the Bill. The Bill at this stage is not debated & discussed. Then the mover of the Bill puts a resolution that the Bill be sent to a Select Committee. Three decisions can be taken on such a resolution.The Bill should be sent to a Select Committee for giving its report on the bill.(ii) The Bill should be sent to the press & states for propaganda & public opinion should be elicited. The people send their views in favor or against the Bill to the Parliament.(iii) If the majority is opposed to the Bill it is dropped. Most Bills of private members are rejected at this stage, if they are not supported by the Cabinet.Select CommitteeIf the Bill is not rejected in the first reading, it is sent to a Select Committee. The committee consists of 20 to 30 members which are taken from among members of the House. The Bill which is published for eliciting public opinion is also sent to the Select Committee. The members of the Select Committee discuss the Bill in detail & debate the merits & demerits of the Bill. The committee can suggest amendments in the provision of clause of the Bill. After discussing the Bill thoroughly the committee prepares its report in favor of or against the Bill & suggests some amendments in the Bill. While preparing the report the committee takes into consideration public opinion also. Then the committee sends its report to the House.Second ReadingA day is fixed for discussing the report of the Select Committee on the Bill. The mover of the Bill on the fixed date request this Houses that the report of the Select Committee on the Bill may be discussed. The House discusses the Bill in detail. The Bill is discussed clause by clause & item by item. The views of the Select Committee on all clauses are discussed. The members of the House can suggest the amendments on the Bill. After the Bill is seriously discussed the opinion of the House is sought on such clause & amendment proposals are also put to vote. The Bill is passed according to the view point of the majority of the members. This stage is very important.Third ReadingAfter the Bill is passed in the second reading another date is fixed for the third reading of the Bill. This is the last stage in the passage of the Bill. Like the first stage there is not much of discussion on the Bill in this stage also. There is a little chance of the rejection of the Bill at this stage. At this stage the proposals for amending the Bill cannot be moved. Only proposals for change in the working of the Bill can be given. The entire Bill is put to vote at this stage and it is either rejected & passed.Bill in the second HouseAfter the Bill is passed by one House. It is sent to the second House. It is to pass through all the stages in this House. After the ordinary Bill is passed by both the Houses differ over a particular Bill a joint meeting of the two Houses is called for & the Bill is placed before it. The joint meeting of the two Houses decides the fate of the Bill by a majority vote. As the Lok Sabha is a larger body compared with the Rajyasabha hence the Bill is passed according to the wishes of Lok Sabha.The Rajyasabha can delay the passage of a Money Bill at the most for 14 days. If the Rajyasabha rejects the Money Bill or does not take any action for 14 days, under both those conditions the Money Bill will be considered passed.Assent of the PresidentAfter the Bill is passed by both the Houses it is sent to the President for his assent. The President cannot refuse to give his assent to the Money Bill. In case of ordinary Bill the President can make use of his veto power, that means that the President can refuse to give his assent to the ordinary Bills. However the President may return a Bill to the Parliament. If the Parliament cannot withhold his assent to such a Bill.The Bill becomes an Act when the President gives his assent to it. It can be enforced after the Presidents assent has been taken. It is published in the Government gazette.The procedure for the passage of a Money Bill is almost the same as that of an ordinary Bill. The significant difference between an Ordinary Bill & a Money Bill is that a Money Bill is always introduced by a Minister while an Ordinary Bill can be introduced by any member of the House. Secondly, a Money Bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only after its passage from the Lok Sabha it is sent to the Rajyasabha for its recommendation. The Rajyasabha can delay a Money Bill for 14 days only, cannot kill it. In case of differences between the two Houses over money Bill there cannot be a joint meeting. The President cannot neither send the Money Bill back for recommendation nor can it be rejected.

What are the main differences between the Parliamentary and the Presidential form of Government ?

The main differences between the Parliamentary and the Presidential form of GovernmentParliamentary Government
  • It is the oldest form of democracy. U.K. is considered as the mother of this form of democracy.
  • The elected leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister and then he forms the Government.
  • The executive is called the Council of Ministers. The Cabinet is a small body inside it.
  • The head of executive in this type of Government has usually formal powers. Actual powers are in the hands of Prime Minister.

Presidential Government

  • Democratic Governments can have another form too. It is called the Presidential Form. U.S.A. has this form of Government.
  • In this form of Government the President is the head of the executive and is elected directly.
  • The President has a body called Cabinet. Its members are known as secretaries. These secretaries are not members of Congress (their Parliament). Thus the executive is not part of legislature.
  • The President being the real head of executive, can not be ordinarily removed from his pos

Essay on Federalism in India

The Indian political system like federal experiments in many other parts of the world has passed through its various phases of federal polity from its quasi-federal character to a stage of co-operation and the competition in its centre-state relation and then to a stage of extreme centralization. Hence different opinion, have been expressed, by the political scientists with regard to the nature of the Indian federal system from time to time. Unfortunately impressed by the strong unitary features of the Indian constitution. K.C. Where soon after its enforcement remarked. India is a Unitary State with subsidiary unitary principle. In his description of the Indian Republic as a quasi-federal state the emphasis was on the pronounced unitary bias of the constitution.In 1964 Morris-Jones described the centre-state relation in India as a form of co-operative federalism. He however characterized it as bargaining federalism. The term bargaining federalism, Morris-Jones argued described the character of Indian federalism throughout it referred to a pattern of centre-state relations in which neither centre nor states can impose decisions on the others in which hard comp elative bargaining takes place in such institution as the Planning Commission, the FINANCE Commission and the Zonal Councils. In these institutions bargaining occurs between the centre and the states and among, the several states for the allocation of resources and patronage and for the solution of such divisive problems as the rights of linguistic minorities in the linguistically recognized states.According to Paul Brass it is difficult to arrive at definite conclusion about the general direction of centre-state relation in India until an overall view of the Indian federal system that encompasses all relevant aspects, institution and processes is constructed. In so far as long term tendencies and underlying persistent patterns can be discerned across institution and policy arises in India the direction are towards pluralism, regionalism and decentralization. The differences concerning the nature of the Indian federal system often arise out of the differences in the institution examined. Scholars who look upon primarily at the Planning Commission and the FINANCE Commission or at the use of President’s Rule have tendered to argue that state autonomy has declined and central control over the states has increased.

Federal structure

As regards the Federal structure of the Indian state, our constitution does not explicitly use the term federation, instead Article I, declares that India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States. However, this does not make India a unitary state. The original decision of the Indian Federal System
had all the basic features of a federal set up.Federal features:A Federal system is characterized me by two sets of government with a clear cut division of powers. It must also have a written constitution and a Supreme Court to examine the validity of the federal laws. Measured by these yardsticks India though called a Union of States is in constitutional, theory of federation. It has a written constitution which is the supreme law of the land and which is also the source of authority both for the national and sub-national Governments. Its provisions are binding an all Governments-of the country.Secondly, in its Seventh Schedule the constitution lays down in great detail in three lists like Union list, the state list and the concurrent list, the distribution of powers between the Union and the states.Unitary features:Despite these essential features of a federal set up India is not a classical federation. Nor did the constitution makers have any intention of providing for a tight mould of federation. This is evident from the dominant position which the founding fathers assigned to the centre in the original design of the Indian Federal System. (The paramount position of the centre is underscored by the constitutional division of powers. After distributing the Legislative Powers in three lists the residual subject that is those not covered by three lists are left with the union. By far more significant even in matters included in the concurrent list; the Union Govt. has the final say. The same is true about the state list Art 249 empowers the Parliament to make laws with respect to any matter in the state list, if the Rajya Sabha declares by a resolution that it is a necessary or expedient in the national interest.Art-3 of the constitution authorizes the Indian Parliament to create new states to alter the boundaries of the existing states and even to abolish a state by ordinary legislature procedure without recourse to constitutional amendment. It is completely destructive of the essence of a federal state which is supposed to be composed of units with co-ordinate but limited powers. A plea has been-made by the Karnataka Govt. to modify this article so as to make the consent of a State Legislature a precondition for the introduction in Parliament of any Bill affecting that state.The constitution envisages a sufficiently favorable position to the centre in matter of FINANCEalso. For good reason the more productive sources of revenue such as the income and the do-operation taxes and the duties of customs and excise are assigned to the Union Govt. Besides residuary powers of taxation are also vested in the Union Govt. A good many taxes are collected by the centre and distributed on the recommendation of the Finance, Commission among the states.Emergency provision:Under the emergency provision of the constitution the centre can arrogate to itself all or any legislative and executive function of the states. The President Rule thus tends to shift the balance in favor of the centre and converts the federal system into a unitary one.Representation:Apart from the unequal representation of the states in the Rajya Sabha a number of other provisions also reveal the constitutional imbalance between the Union and the states. The amending process of the Indian constitution, the single judicial system, the All India services, the single constitutional frame the single and uniform citizenship, the single Election Commission and provision for reservation of centre in State Bills for President’s Assent.Art 256 places a state government under obligation to exercise its powers as to ensure compliance with laws made Parliament and to that end the centre is empowered to issues necessary directives tout. In case of non-compliance by any state government of central directive the centre can resort to the extreme step of taking over the administration of such a state under Art. 356.With the coming of profound changes in the economic and technical fields as also in the ideas of men about Government and institution the environment of federalism has also radically changed. Both the centre and the units-all over the world have been compelled by circumstances to move out of their areas and the states have come to acquiesce in the pre-dominance of the centre. In view of this also to cling to the traditionalists approach emphasizes the need to redefine federalism in the light of the universal trends and tendencies which are clearly discernible in the existing federation. He also pleads that if under a system of government both the central and state authority declare their states and powers from the constitution and not from the central law and can ordinarily enjoy substantial autonomy within their respective jurisdiction set by the constitution then there’s no valid ground to deny federal character to that system of Government. Examined in the light of these criteria which are quite close to the living realities, Indian constitution can be safely described as federation.

What are the circumstances that led to the formation of the Indian National Congress in 1885?

The earliest political association was the British Indian Society of Bengal found in 1843. In 1851 the British Indian Association was founded and the British Indian Society was merged into it.Almost simultaneously with the British Indian Association was formed the Bombay Association (1852) in the western presidency. It, however, did not last for more than a decade. Madras was also slow in developing its public life. A body named Madras Native Association existed there, but it was managed by some officials and had little vitality. In 1870 another organization was formed at Poona, namely, the Sarvajanika Sabha. These organizations were local in character.The first organization with a really all-India basis was the Indian Association founded in 1876 mainly through the efforts of Surendra Nath Banerji. It was under the auspices of this body that the civil service agitation was conducted by S.N. Banerji all over the country. In 1883 the Indian Association organized the first All India Conference at Calcutta. The Second Conference was held in 1885. During the same period a few more organizations came into existence, the Bengal National League (1884), the Madras Mahajana Sabha (1884) and the Bombay Presidency Association (1885).Thus, before the actual establishment of the Indian National Congress; a great political ferment had started in the country and it was fully prepared both in men and materials for the construction of a national organization.”

Foundation of the Indian Congress:

The official founder of the Indian National Congress was A.O. Hume, who had retired from the service of the government in 1882. The scheme, however, was prepared in the government Secretariat at Simla and the then Governor General, Lord Duffer in took a leading part in its formulation. The motives which actuated Hume and his associates in the matter, were, a few years later, explained by the former in his correspondence with Sir Auckland Colvin, the Lt. Governor of the United Provinces. In his official capacity, Hume had seen seven volumes of secret police reports from different parts of the country. The evidence contained in them had convinced him that towards the close of Lord Lytton’s Viceroyalty, The country was in an immediate danger of a violent outbreak. There was terrible restlessness among the starving masses and they were bent upon doing something. The reports revealed that underground conspiratorial organizations were springing up and violent crimes like murder of obnoxious persons and the looting of bazaars were being planned on a large scale. It was also feared that a small number from the educated class who were at the time bitter against, the government would join the movement, assume here and there the lead, give the outbreak cohesion and direct it as a national revolt.Under these circumstances, Hume and his friends in the secretariat were convinced that something should be done to forestall the spontaneous revolutionary outbursts and to direct, the growing restlessness of the country into a constitutional channel.Hume took the initiative in to his hands. He formed a scheme in his mind and saw Lord Duffer in at Simla early in 1885. The Governor General blessed the idea of Hume. In March 1885 it was finally decided to hold a conference of representatives from all parts .of the country at Poona during the Christmas holidays.The aims of the conference were (1) to enable all the most earnest participants to become personally known to each other in the cause of national progress (2) to discuss and decide upon the political operations to be undertaken during the ensuing year.The meeting, however, could not be held at Poona owing to the outbreak of cholera in the town, and was shifted to Bombay. So, on December 28, 1885 and the two succeeding days, seventy two representatives from different provinces met at the Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College. Bombay, under the President ship of a Calcutta barrister W.C. Banerji.

Political Ideas of the moderates:

Faith in British Rule

The starting point of the early leaders of the Congress, often called moderates was their abiding faith that British rule was a great boon to India and a dispensation of providence. There were many factors responsible for their faith. First, the British had brought peace and order to the country after more than a century of disorder and anarchy that had been let loose on the land after the break up of the Mughal Empire. Besides, the moderates were grateful to the British for the introduction of Western type of administrative machinery and justice, rapid means of transport and communication, local self governing institutions, the free press, and above all for English education which, according to them, had brought new light to the country, Loyalty to the British, therefore, was the kernel of the political creed of the moderates. The Congress- declared Dadabhai Naoroji, was not a nursery for sedition and rebellion against the British government but another stone in the foundation of the stability of that Government.

Secular Nationalism

The progressive part of the ideology of the liberals was their secular nationalism. They firmly believed that in spite of all the diversities, India was a nation. They tried to ignore and bypass all the caste and communal differences and focused the attention of educated classes on the questions of common interest. Despite the advocacy of many an English politician and some of their Indian disciples that India’s degradation was due to her social and religious decay and, therefore, social and religious reforms should precede political reforms, the moderates tenaciously maintained the secular character of the Congress and kept the social and religious problems away from politics.

No Doctrinaire Liberty

Although the democratic ideals of liberty, equality and representative government had great fascination for them, they were not doctrinaire philosophers. Their ideal of liberty was not a reproduction of the western concept. They did not believe in the principle of laissez faire. They stood for state protection of industries and looked to the government for social reform, education, and protection of agriculture, trade and industries, for measures of health and sanitation, famine relief and other matters of national advancement. But at the same time they were great champions of civil liberties of the people. They fought boldly for freedom of thought and expression, freedom of the press and personal liberty.

No Doctrinaire Equality

Similarly, they had nothing to do with the doctrinaire concept of equality. They believed that the Indians were not capable of managing their political and civil affairs, and, therefore, it was necessary for them to pass through a period of tutelage under the guardianship of the British. Yet they fought consistently for racial equality between Indians and Englishmen, and for social and religious equality among Indians themselves.

Objectives of the Congress:

There was broad uniformity in the objectives and methods of the Congress during the first twenty years in its history. Every year it passed a roughly similar set of resolutions dealing with three broad types of grievances: political, administrative and economic.

(1) Political Demands

The principal political demand was the establishment of genuine consultative councils, both at the centre and in the provinces, increase in the number of members of existing councils, introduction of the principle of election, placing of all legislative and financial measures including the budget before the councils and the right of interpretation to the members of Legislature. Thus, the immediate perspective fell far short of self-government or democracy. It was for the first time in 1906 that Dadabhai Naoroji in his President address, declared, “self-government or Swaraj” like that of the United Kingdom or the colonies to be the distant goal of the Congress. An equally important political demand was the abolition of the hated India Council.

2. Administrative Demands

(i) Employment – The question of employment of Indians in the public services engaged the attention of the Congress from the very beginning. It was demanded that competitive examinations should be held, simultaneously in India and England open to all classes of her Majesty’s subjects, that a classified list of appointments be made in order of merit, and that the age for competition should be not less than 19 and not more than 23. Similarly, it was insisted that the higher branches of Medical, P.W.D., Railway; opium, customs and Telegraph services be thrown open to Indians.(ii) Reduction of Military Expenditure – The military, problem was another important matter to which the Congress devoted serious thought from the outset. The main demands in this connection were the ever mounting military expenditure should be reduced, an equitable portion of that expenditure be borne by the British, treasury and a system of volunteering for Indians be introduced. The most noteworthy feature of the Congress stand on the military affairs was its unqualified condemnation of the forward aggressive policy of the government. The annexation of Burma, the Tibetan expedition of Lord Curzon and the forward frontier policy were severely criticized.(iii) Legal Rights – The Congress from the beginning was solicitous about safeguarding the legal rights of the people. The first demand in this connection was separation of executive from judicial function: Another important demand was the establishment of the system of trial by jury.(iv) Education – In the field of education the Congress demanded that the government should extend primary education, broaden secondary education, and maintain at its highest possible level higher education. Particular emphasis was laid on technical education for Indians.

3. Economic Demands

The economic issues raised were all bound with the general poverty of the masses, to the, first few years the official view of the Congress was that the drain of wealth caused by the employment of foreign agency in the administration of the country and the growing military expenditure were the main causes of the economic rain of the masses. Resolutions were passed calling for an enquiry into India’s growing poverty and famines demanding cuts in Home charges and military expenditure and funds for technical education to promote Indian industries, and an end to unfair tariffs and excise duties.The new land revenue system was also held responsible for the economic decline of the country and the main demands were introduction of Permanent Settlement and fixity of land revenue over the rest of the country.The early Congress was concerned not only with the interests of the English educated professional groups, zamindars or industrialists. It passed numerous resolutions on salt tax, treatment of Indian coolies abroad, and sufferings caused by forest administration.

The Constitutional Method

The method which the early Congress adopted for the redress of their grievances is commonly known as the constitutional method. It excluded not only rebellion, aiding or abetting foreign invasion and resort to violence, but all well-organized agitation. Even if their demands remain underdressed, they could not think of setting afoot an agitation that had the remotest possibility of arousing genuine indignation and dissatisfaction of the masses against the British Government. Even a peaceful agitation was inconsistent with their views and aims.The method of the moderates was an appeal to the sense of justice and generosity of British statesmen and people. Its essence was prayers and petitions. The early Congress concentrated, on building up through petitions. Speeches and articles a fool-proof logical case aimed at convincing the liberal-minded public opinion of the land of Cobden, Bright, Mill and Gladstone.Finally, the Congress politicians argued that the attainment of self-Government by other colonies of the British Empire was proof positives of the fact that the real intention of the English rulers was totrain Indian gradually in democratic institutions. As the time would come, India would also get at their hands the same type of government which they had conferred on other colonies.

Criticism ofthe Moderates’ Ideology

During the first twenty years, 1885-1905, the Congress was controlled by moderates. Their ideology and methodology both have been criticized on various grounds. Neither their political ideology was correct nor were their means effective. Their liberal nationalism was a queer mixture of patriotism-and loyalty to the British. Their thinking that the British rule was beneficial for the country was wrong. Their belief in the British sense of justice was also not correct. The later events proved that the British imperialists only understood the language of strength and pressure instead of truth and justice. Besides, the moderate leaders were not the leaders of the masses. Except Gokhala, no moderate jeader was prepared for individual sacrifice for the attainment of the goal of freedom.Moreover, the constitutional methodology adopted by moderates was not effective. Till 1918, despite petitions, memorandums, prayers and deputations, the British government did not show any real interest towards the legitimate demands of Indians. That is why the extremists later on described the moderate’s the methodology as political mendicancy.


In spite of the basic weaknesses of the political thought and practice of the moderates, they rendered significant service to the country. The annual sessions of the Congress gave a concrete form to the idea of national unity. The congress inculcated among the people of diverse races, religions, castes and languages, the sentiment of nationalism and patriotism. Even more important was the establishment of traditions of organized political activity. Finally, the moderates made a bold attempt to give a secular direction to Indian politics. However, from the practical point of view the moderates did not meet with any amount of success. None of their demands was conceded by the government.

Citizenship in India – Political Science Study Material & Notes

The constitution of India gives ‘Single Citizenship” for all its citizens India. This implies that there is no disparate domicile for a state.

Provisions for citizenship are mentioned in Article 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution. Individuals who are not Indian Citizens are onsideref Aliens. Aliens do not enjoy rights mentioned in Article 15,16,19,29,30 of the Constitution.Indian citizenship

Indian Citizenship can be acquired by following four means:


A) Citizenship by birth :-

  • Any person born in India on or after the 26th day of January,1950, but before the commencement of 1986 Act on 1st day of July, 1987, is a citizen of India by birth. ;
  • Any person born on or after the 1st day of July, 1987, but before the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003 and either of whose parents is a citizen of India at the time of his birth is a citizen of India.
  • Any person born on or after the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003, where either- (i) both of his parents are citizens of India; or (ii) one of whose parents is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of his birth, shall be a citizen of India by birth.
  • Exceptions: A person shall not be a citizen of India by virtue of this section, if at the time of his birth- (a) either his father or mother possesses such immunity from suits and legal process as is accorded to an envoy of a foreign sovereign power accredited to the President of India and he or she, is not a citizen of India; (b) his father or mother is an enemy alien and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by the enemy.

B) Citizenship by descent :-

  • A person born outside India on or after the 26th day of January, 1950, but before the 10th day of December, 1992, if his father is a citizen of India at the time of his birth shall be a citizen of India by descent.
  • A person born outside India on or after the 10th day of December,1992, if either of his parents is a citizen of India at the time of his birth will be a citizen of India by descent.
  • Since 2004, a person shall not be a citizen of India by virtue of this section, unless his birth is registered at an Indian consulate  within one year of the date of birth.

C) Citizenship by registration :-

The Central Government may, on an application, register as a citizen of India under section 5 of Citizenship Act 1955 (any person not being an illegal migrant) if he belongs to any of the following categories:

  1. a person of Indian origin who are ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration;
  2. a person of Indian origin who is ordinarily resident in any country or place outside undivided India;
  3. a person who is married to a citizen of India and is ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration.
  4. minor children of persons who are citizens of India;
  5. a person of full age and capacity who, or either of his parents, was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India for one year immediately before making an application for registration;
  6. a person of full age and capacity who has been registered as an overseas citizen of India for five years, and who has been residing in India for one year before making an application for registration.

D) Citizenship by naturalization :-

Citizenship of India can be acquired by an Alien by naturalization in following manner:

  • When any person of full age and capacity not being an illegal migrant makes an application for the grant of a certificate of naturalization to him, the Central Government may, if satisfied that the applicant is qualified for naturalization under the provisions of the Third Schedule- (must have lived a total of 12 years in India in a period of 14 years, and must have lived for 12 months uninterrupted in India prior to application for citizenship), grant to him a certificate of naturalization. The conditions specified in the Third Schedule may be waived if  in the opinion of the Central Government, the applicant is a person who has rendered distinguished service to the cause of science, philosophy, art, literature, world peace or human progress generally.
  • The person to whom a certificate of naturalization is granted under sub-section (1) shall, on taking the oath of allegiance in the form specified in the Second Schedule, be a citizen of India by naturalization as from the date on which that certificate is granted.

Termination/Renunciation of citizenship :-

  1. Renunciation: Renunciation is covered under Section 8 of the Citizenship Act 1955. If an adult makes a declaration of renunciation of Indian Citizenship , he would lose Indian Citizenship. Along with him, any minor child of that person also loses Indian Citizenship from the date of renunciation. The child has the right to resume Indian Citizenship when he turns eighteen.
  2. Termination :It is covered under Section 9 of Citizenship Act 1955. Any Indian Citizen who by naturalization or registration acquires the citizenship of another country shall cease to be a Citizen of India.

Indians living Abroad:

Indian Constitution forbids dual citizenship/ nationality which implies that a person cannot have any other countries’ passport simultaneously with the Indian one. Indians living abroad have been classified into three categories : NRI, PIO, OCI. There are minor differences in these three. We shall understand each one separately to deveop a clear concept:

  • NRI (Non-Resident Indian) – Holder of Indian passport and temporarily immigrated to another country for six months or more.
  • PIO (Persons of Indian Origin) – Holder of Non-Indian passport, and can prove their Indian origin up to three generations. Spouses of Indian citizens or persons of Indian citizens.
  • OCI (Overseas Citizens of India) – Persons of Indian origin who are holder of another country’s passport which allows its citizens to hold dual citizenship of some kind. It is not full citizenship of India and hence, does not amount to dual citizenship .Indian citizenship



Structure of Government of India

The Government in India or the central or the union government is divided into three main sections namely the executive, legislature and the judiciary shown as under. The responsibility of each section of the government is also mentioned along.

Government of India(Central/Union Government)ExecutiveExecutive consists of :1. President2. Vice President3. Cabinet MinistersLegislatureor ParliamentLegislature consists of :1. Lok Sabha +Rajya Sabha2. Prime minister (MP)JudiciaryJudiciary consists of :Supreme Court of IndiaResponsibilty|To pass the laws madeby the LegislatureResponsibilty|To make lawsResponsibilty|1. To solve conflictsbetween Executive andLegislature2. other public relatedmatters or conflicts

Structure of State Government of India

The state legislature or the state assembly in India is headed by the chief minister of that state. The state legislature is divided into two parts namely the vidhan sabha and the vidhan parishad. The governor for the state assemblies is elected by the chief minister himself.

Below a complete flowchart is given about the state legislatures (assemblies) in India to make things more clear.

State Legislature or StateAssemblies headed by CMelected by thepeople of that stateelected by MLAs,standing graduates,governor etc.VIDHAN SABHAGovernor elected byPresident of IndiaVIDHAN PARISHAD1. Fixed no. of seats in every state.2. Diff. Number of seats for diff. states1. size cannot be more than 1/3 of the seats reserved for MLA’s 2. cannot be less than 40 xcept J&K(36)Elected members called MLA(Member of Legislative Assembly)Elected members called MLC(Member of Legislative Council)MLAs present in all states ofIndia and in two of the Union TerritoriesMLCs only in 7 states namely UP,Bihar, J&K, Assam, Maharashtra,Andhra Pradesh and KarnatakaCabinet Ministers of state madefrom amongst these selected MLAsNo MLC can be member of Cabinetof Ministers

Structure of Union Territories Administration in India

There are a total of 7 union territories in India namely Delhi, Pondicherry, Daman and Diu, Dadra & Nagar, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The administrative structure of Delhi, Pondicherry is quite different from those of the rest of the union territories.

Go through the flow chart to know the difference between the two sets of UT’s in India.

Administrative Structure of union territories in IndiaDelhiDaman and DiuChandigarhAndaman & NicobarPondicherryDadra & NagarLakshadweep1. partial state hood given2. legislative assemblies and theexecutive councils of ministers.3. has own CM4. Lieutenant governor, normallyincharge of U.T. In case CM Not present1 . are ruled directly by the Central Government.2. An administrator, who is an IAS officer or an MPis appointed by the President of India for effectiveadminstration of the U.T.

Structure of Local Government Bodies in India

Village (rural) Administration:

Panchayati Raj: Basic unit of Administration in India, comprising of three levels –
1. Gram (Village) – Gram Panchayat (for one or more than one village)
2. Taluka/Tehsil (Block) – Panchayat Samiti
3. Zila (District) – Zila Panchayat

Gram Panchayat elects one Sarpanch and other members.

Powers and responsibilities of Gram Panchayat:
1. Preparation of the economic development plan and social justice plan.
2. Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice.
3. To levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.

Block Panchayat/Panchayat Samiti comprised of all Aarpanchas of the Panchayat samiti area, the MPs and MLAs of the area, the SDO of the subdivision and some other members from the weaker section of society. Block Panchayat/Panchayat Samiti works for the villages of the tehsil or taluka that together are called a Development Block.

Zila Panchayat Chief of administration is an IAS officer and other members are elected by the Gram Panchayats and Panchayat Samitis.

City (urban) Administration

Mahanagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation ): In Metro cities. At present around 88 Nagar Nigam are in operation. From every ward, there is a Sabhashad, elected by the voters, whereas one Mayor elected separately.

Nagar Palika (Municipality) : Cities having more than 1,00,000 population (there are exceptions as the earlier threshold was 20,000, so all those who have a Nagar Palika earlier, sustains it even though their population is below 1,00,000). From every ward, a member is elected whereas Chairman is elected separately.

Nagar Panchayat/Nagar Parishad (Notified Area Council/City Council): Population more than 11,000 but less than 25,000.


Pranab Mukherjee, the President of India

President of India Factsheet

Name Pranab Mukherjee
Preceded by Pratibha Patil
Date of Birth Dec 11, 1935
Place of Birth Mirati, British India
Qualifications MA degree in political science and history and also an LL.B degree from the department of law of the University of Calcutta
Religion Hindu
Spouse name Suvra Mukherjee
Assumed office Jul 25, 2012
Children 2 Sons & 1 Daughter

The President of India is the head of the executive, legislature and judiciary of the country. Article 52 of the Constitution of India says that there should be a President of India. Article 53 says that all the executive powers of the Union shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him.

Current President of India

Pranab Mukherjee is the current & 13th President of India. He took office on July 25th, 2012. Pranab Mukherjee is a veteran congressman who has served both in the government as well as the opposition. 76 year old Mukherjee has held several high profile portfolios in the government, including FINANCE, Defence & Foreign Ministry. Born in Birbhum district of West Bengal in1935, Mukherjee went on to get a Master’s degree in History & Political Science, as well as a degree in Law . Pranab Mukherjee got a break in politics in 1969,when he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha with the help of Indira Gandhi. Mukherjee briefly left the Congress in the 80s to form his own party – Rashtriya Samajwadi Party, but came back, after he merged the party with the Congress in 1989. Mukherjee ascended in the next two decades to prominence in the Congress party, as one of the key troubleshooters in the party. Once nominated by the UPA for President’s chair, Pranab Mukherjee defeated PA Sangma, winning 70% of the electoral-college vote.

Election of the President

Article 54 of the Indian Constitution discusses the election of the President. It says that the President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college, which consists of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament, and the Legislative Assemblies of the States and the two Union Territories, namely Delhi and Puducherry. The election of the President is held in accordance with a system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. He can be re-elected to the office of the President. The oath of the President is administered by the Chief Justice of India, and in his absence, by the most senior judge of the Supreme Court.


Article 58 of the Indian Constitution says that the presidential candidate must:

  • Be a citizen of India.
  • Have completed the age of thirty-five years.
  • Be qualified for elections as a member of the Lok Sabha.
  • Not hold any office of profit under the Union or any State government, or any local or other authority.

Term of office

Article 56 of the Indian Constitution says that the President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date he takes up his post. He may resign from his office by writing his resignation to the Vice-President of India. But, he will continue to hold his office, in spite of tendering his resignation, until his successor takes up his office. And, before his office gets vacated, an election should be held for the same.

Article 61 provides for the manner in which he can be impeached on the violation of the Constitution. The Vice-President acts as his substitute in case his office falls vacant on the grounds of his death, resignation or impeachment or otherwise. Such a vacancy should be filled by an election necessarily taking place within six months of his office falling vacant.

Impeachment of President

Impeachment is the process to remove the President of India from his office before his term expires. The Impeachment can be carried out if the Constitution of India is violated by the President and the proceedings can be initiated in either of the two houses of the Parliament. Two-thirds majority is required to pass the resolution in the House. Thereafter, a notice signed by a quarter of the members of the House and containing the charges is sent to the President. After 14 days the charges are taken into consideration by the other House and in the meantime the President can defend himself. If the charges are approved by the second House also then the President is said to have been impeached. He has to leave his office.

Powers of President

The President of India is vested with the Executive, Legislative, Emergency, Diplomatic, Judicial and Military powers.

Executive powers

All the executive powers of the Union shall be vested in him. These powers should be exercised by him in accordance with the Constitution of India. He appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. He also appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts in the states, besides appointing the Attorney General and Comptroller and auditor General of India. Among other critical powers, he enjoys the pardoning power, whereby he can pardon the death sentence awarded to a convict.

Legislative powers

He can dissolve the Lok Sabha and end a session of the Parliament. He can also address the Parliament in its first session every year. He can nominate 12 members to the Rajya Sabha. These members must have extra ordinary accomplishments in the fields of science, art, literature and social service. He can also nominate 2 members to the Lok Sabha from the Anglo-Indian Community. When a bill is passed by the Parliament, the President can give or withhold his assent to it. He can also return it to the Parliament, unless it’s a Money Bill or a Constitutional Amendment Bill.

Emergency powers

He can declare national, state and financial emergency. National emergency can be declared on the grounds of war, external aggression or armed rebellion in the country. This can be done on the written request of the Cabinet Ministers after the proclamation has been approved by the Parliament. State emergency can be imposed in a state if it fails to run constitutionally. Financial emergency can be proclaimed if there is a likelihood of the financial instability in the country.

Financial powers

Only when the President recommends can a money bill be introduced in the Parliament. He lays the Union budget before the Parliament and makes advances out of the Contingency Fund.

Diplomatic, Military and Judicial powers

He appoints ambassadors and high commissioners to other countries. All international treaties are signed on his behalf. Under Military powers, he can declare war and conclude peace. He appoints Chief of Army, Navy and Air Force. He can dismiss judges if two-third majority of the members present of the two Houses of the Parliament pass the resolution to that effect.

Salary and residence of President of India

The salary and allowances of the President are fixed by the Parliament of India. The current salary of the President is Rs 150000 per month. His official residence is Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi.


Role of Governor of India

The Governor is the head of a state just like the President is the head of the republic. The Governor is the nominal head of a state, while the Chief Minister is the executive head. All executive actions of the state are taken in the name of the Governor. However, in reality he merely gives his consent to the various executive actions. He or she is devoid of taking any major decisions. The real powers in the executive dealings of a state rest with the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers.

According to an amendment in the Constitution of India, brought about in 1956, the same person can be the Governor of two or more states. Apart from the governors in the states, Lieutenant governors are appointed in Union Territories of Delhi, Andaman Nicobar Island and Pudducherry. All other union-territories are governed by an Administrative Head (an IAS officer). The only exception is Chandigarh. The governor of Punjab is also the lieutenant governor of Chandigarh.

The powers of the Lieutenant Governor of a union-territory are equivalent to the powers of a Governor of a state in India. Both are appointed by the President of India for a term of 5 years.

Powers of the Governor

Like the President of India, the Governor of a state has certain executive, legislative and judicial powers. He or she also possesses certain discretionary or emergency powers. But, unlike the President, the Governor does not have any diplomatic or military powers.

Inside the page
Eligibility Criteria Duty Term of the Governor Pension of the Governor
The Residence of the Governor Interesting Facts List of Governors of India State-wise
List of Current Lieutenant Governors and Administrators of Union Territories Women Governors in India

Executive powers

  • The Governor has the power to appoint the Council of Ministers including the Chief Minister of the state, the Advocate General and the members of the State Public Service Commission. However, the Governor cannot remove the members of the State Public Service Commission as they can only be removed by an order of the President.
  • The Governor is consulted by the President in the appointment of the Judges of the state High Court.
  • The Governor appoints Judges of the District Courts.
  • In case the Governor feels that the Anglo-Indian community has not been adequately represented in the Vidhan Sabha, he or she can nominate one member of the community to the Legislative Assembly of the state.
  • In all the states where a bicameral legislature is present, the Governor has a right to nominate the members, who are “persons having special knowledge or practical experience in matters such as literature, science, art, co-operative movement and social service”, to the Legislative Council.

Legislative Powers

  • As the Governor is said to be a part of the State Legislature, he has the right of addressing and sending messages, summoning, deferring and dissolving the State Legislature, just like the President has, in respect to the Parliament. Although these are formal powers, in reality, the Governor must be guided by the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers before making such decisions.
  • The Governor inaugurates the state legislature and the first session of each year, by addressing the Assembly, outlining the new administrative policies of the ruling government.
  • The Governor lays before the State Legislature, the annual financial statement and also makes demands for grants and recommendation of ‘Money Bills’.
  • The Governor constitutes the State FINANCE Commission. He also holds the power to make advances out of the Contingency Fund of the State in the case of any unforeseen circumstances.
  • All bills passed by the Legislative Assembly become a law, only after the Governor approves them. In case it is not a money bill, the Governor holds the right to send it back to the Vidhan Sabha for reconsideration. But if the Vidhan Sabha sends back the Bill to the Governor the second time, then he has to sign it.

  • The Governor has the power to promulgate an ordinance when the Legislative Assembly is not in session, and a law has to be brought into effect immediately. However, the ordinance is presented in the state legislature in the next session, and remains operative for a total of six weeks, unless it is approved by the legislature.

Judicial Powers

  • he Governor can grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishments. He can also suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of an offence against the law.
  • The Governor is consulted by the President in the appointment of the Chief Justice to the High Court of that particular state.

Emergency Powers

  • In case no political party bags a majority in the Vidhan Sabha of the state, the Governor holds the power to use his discretion to select the Chief Minister.
  • The Governor informs the President in an official report, of a particular emergency arisen in the state, and imposes ‘President’s Rule’ on the behalf of the President. The Governor, in such circumstances, overrides the advice or functions of the Council of Ministers, and directs upon himself, the workings of the state.

Eligibility Criteria

As per the Constitution of India, the following are the eligibility criteria for the appointment of the Governor in a particular state:

  • He or she must be a citizen of India.
  • He or she must have completed 35 years of age.
  • He or she must not hold any other office of profit.
  • He or she must not be a member of the Legislature of the Union or of any other state. There is no bar to the selection of a Governor from amongst the members of the Legislature, provided that on appointment, he or she immediately ceases to be a Member of the Legislature.

Salary of the Governor

The monthly salary of a Governor is Rs 1,10,000, as specified in the Governor’s (Emoluments, Allowances and Privileges) Act of 1982. The Governor is also entitled to certain benefits and allowances, which shall not be diminished during his office term of five years.

Facilities for the Governor

In addition to the monthly salary, the Governor is entitled to a number of special facilities such as medical facilities, residence facilities, traveling facilities, reimbursement of phone and electricity bills, and many other allowances. The Governor is provided an official residence free of rent. The Governor and his or her family is also provided free medical attendance for life. A fixed amount of money is also allotted as the Governor’s traveling expenses across the country.

Selection Process of the Governor

The Governor is not elected by the process of direct or indirect voting (like the Chief Minister, the Prime Minister or the President). The Governor of a particular state is appointed directly by the President of India, for a period of five years. The Governor must meet all the eligibility criteria enumerated above, to be appointed by the President.

Duty Term of the Governor

A governor of a state in India holds office for a period of five years, but it is subject to termination earlier if:

  • The Governor is dismissed by the President, at whose pleasure he holds the office. In reality, the President is advised by the Prime Minister of the country, who decides the dismissal of the Governor of a state, usually on the grounds of gross delinquency namely corruption, bribery and violation of the Constitution.
  • The Governor resigns from his post. There is no retirement age of the Governor, as he or she stays in office for a fixed term. There is no provision for a Governor to be impeached from office, unlike that of a President.

Pension of the Governor

A Governor of a particular state is entitled to a fixed pension, as per the Constitution of India. In August 2013, a Bill for hike in pension for the Governor was initiated. Besides a fixed pension, a Governor is also entitled to emoluments such as secretarial allowances and medical benefits for life.

The Residence of the Governor

As the Governor is the nominal head of a particular state in India, he or she is entitled to reside in the Raj Bhavan of that state, during his or her term of office. Like the President of India who resides in the Rashtrapati Bhavan in Delhi, each state has a Raj Bhavan, which is allotted to the Governor and his family. The Governor must vacate the Raj Bhavan on the expiry of his or her term of office.

Interesting Facts

The first woman to become a Governor of a state in India was Sarojini Naidu. She was the Governor of Uttar Pradesh from 15 August 1947 till her demise on 2 March 1949.


Mohammad Hamid Ansari

Vice President of India Factsheet

Name Mohammad Hamid Ansari
Position Held Vice President of India
Preceded by Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
Date of Birth Apr 1, 1937
Place of Birth Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (now Kolkata, West Bengal, India)
Qualifications BA Degree and then M.A. in Political Science at the Aligarh Muslim University
Religion Muslim
Spouse name Salma Ansari
Assumed office Aug 11, 2007
Children two sons and one daughter

About Vice President of India

Role of the Vice President

According to the Constitution of India, the office of the Vice President is the second highest constitutional post in independent India. The Vice President is the ‘ex-officio’ Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha. The office of the Vice President in India is complementary to that of the President, in that, the Vice President takes over the role of the President in the latter’s absence. In other words, the role of the Vice President is to assist the President in being the nominal head of the Republic of India. However, one must remember that the office of the President and the Vice President cannot be combined in one person, as per the Constitution of India.

Powers and Functions of the Vice President

The Vice President of India, after the President, is the highest dignitary of India, and certain powers are attached to the office of the Vice President. These are:

  • The Vice President shall discharge the functions of the President during the temporary absence of the President due to illness or any other cause due to which the President is unable to carry out his functions.
  • The Vice President shall act as the President, in case of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation, removal through impeachment or otherwise. The Vice President shall take over the duties of the President until a new President is elected and resumes office.
  • The Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States.
  • When the Vice President acts as, or discharges the functions of the President, he or she immediately ceases to perform the normal functions of being the Chairman of the Council of States.
Inside the page
Election of the President of India Salary of the Vice President Facilities for the Vice President
Selection Process of the Vice President Duty Term or Period of the Vice President Pension of the Vice President
Residence of the Vice President Interesting Facts List of Vice Presidents

Eligibility Criteria

The qualifications needed to become a Vice President of India are the following:

  • He or she must be a citizen of India.
  • He or she must be over 35 years of age.
  • He or she must not hold any office of profit.
  • He or she must be qualified for election as a Member of the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States.

Salary of the Vice President

The Vice President is entitled to receiving the salary of the Chairman of the Council of States, which presently amounts to Rs 1,25,000 per month. However, when the Vice President performs the functions of the President or discharges the duties of the President, in the latter’s temporary absence, he is entitled to the salary as well as special privileges of the President.

Facilities for the Vice President

The Vice President, unlike the President, is not entitled to any special emoluments and privileges during his term of office. However, when he discharges the duties of the President in the latter’s absence, the Vice President enjoys all the benefits that are enjoyed by the President, during that tenure.

Selection Process of the Vice President

Like the election of the President, the election of the Vice President is indirect and in accordance with the system of proportional representation, through the concept of a single transferable vote by secret ballot. The electoral college, which consists of members of both houses of the Parliament, cast their votes to elect the Vice President. However, there is a slight difference in the election of the Vice President and that of the President. The members of the State Legislatures have no role to play in the election of the Vice President, unlike that of the President.

The Election Commission of India, which holds elections in the country, is responsible for ensuring that free and fair elections to the post of a Vice President are held in the following steps:

  • A Returning Officer who is appointed for the elections, sends out public notices issuing the date of election to the office of the Vice President. The elections for the same must be held within a period of 60 days of the expiry of the term of office of the previous Vice President.
  • The nomination of candidates to the office of a Vice President must be affirmed by 20 electors (Members of Parliament) who act as proposers, and 20 electors who act as seconders.
  • Each candidate must deposit a total of Rs 15,000 to the Reserve Bank of India, as part of the nomination process.
  • The Returning Officer carefully scrutinises and adds to the ballot, the names of all eligible candidates.
  • The elections are then held by proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. The nominated candidates can also cast their votes.
  • The Returning Officer declares the results to the electoral college, the Central Government and the Election Commission of India, respectively. The name of the Vice President is then officially announced by the Central Government.

Duty Term or Period of the Vice President

The office of the Vice President is for a period of five years. There is no fixed retirement age to the Vice President, as he or she can remain in the post for five years. However, he or she can be re-elected as the Vice President for any number of times. The office of the Vice President can also terminate earlier before the fixed five-year term, either by resignation or by removal by the President. There is no formal process of impeachment for the removal of the Vice President, and a removal proceeding can be initiated when members of the Rajya Sabha vote against the Vice President in an effective majority and members of Lok Sabha agree to this decision in a simple majority. A total of 14 days advance notice must be given prior to the initiation of the removal proceedings of the Vice President. In such cases, when a temporary vacancy in the office of the Vice President is created, the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha takes over the role of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

Pension of the Vice President

Although there is no particular fixed pension in the Constitution for the Vice President of India, according to the Vice President’s Pension Act of 1997, the pension of the Vice President is half of the salary that he/she is entitled to, during his term of office.

Residence of the Vice President

Unlike the President, the Vice President is not allotted any special residential privileges while in office. While the President of India stays in the Rastrapati Bhavan, the Vice President is not subject to any such benefits during his or her tenure as the Vice President.

Interesting Facts

  • Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the first Vice President of independent India, elected to the office in 1952.
  • The only Vice President to be re-elected for a second term was Dr. S Radhakrishnan, who again became the Vice President in the year 1957.
  • No Vice President, in the history of independent India, has had to face removal proceedings before the expiry of the term of office.
  • K R Narayanan, Shankar Dayal Sharma, R Venkataraman, V V Giri, Zakir Hussain and Dr. S Radhakrishnan, each of whom was a President of India at different points in time, remained Vice Presidents before they were elected as Presidents.
  • The present Vice President of India, Mohammad Hamid Ansari, has served as an ambassador to many countries across the world, such as U.A.E, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Iran and others.

List of Vice Presidents

Vice President From To President
Mohammad Hamid Ansari Aug 11, 2007 Incumbent Pratibha Patil
Mohammad Hamid Ansari     Pranab Mukherjee
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Aug 19, 2002 Jul 21, 2007 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Krishan Kant Aug 21, 1992 Jul 24, 1997 Kocheril Raman Narayanan
  Aug 21, 1997 Jul 27, 2002 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Kocheril Raman Narayanan Sep 3, 1987 Jul 24, 1992 Shankar Dayal Sharma
Shankar Dayal Sharma Sep 3, 1987 Jul 24, 1992 Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Ramaswamy Venkataraman Aug 31, 1984 Jul 24, 1987 Giani Zail Singh
Justice Muhammad Hidayatullah Aug 31, 1979 Aug 30, 1984 Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Basappa Danappa Jatti Aug 31, 1974 Aug 30, 1979 Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Gopal Swarup Pathak Aug 31, 1969 Aug 30, 1974 Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri
Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri May 13, 1967 May 3, 1969 Dr. Zakir Hussain
Dr. Zakir Hussain May 13, 1962 May 12, 1967 Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan May 13, 1952 May 12, 1962 Dr. Rajendra Prasad


The Parliament of India or the legislature is divided into two houses namely the upper and the lower house or two sabhas namely the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is also called the Lower house and the Rajya Sabha can be addressed as the Upper house .

Legislature or Parliament headed by President of Indiaterm – 6years (1/3members retire every2 years)term -5 years(automatically dissolved)Rajya Sabha (Upper House)Council of statesLok Sabha (Lower House)House of the People238 members elected by state MLAs+12 nominated by President for contributions to art, literature, scienceservices and social.543 members elected by generalpopulation + 2 Anglo Indian elected by President of India.Speaker – Vice President (elected by both Lok and Rajya Sabha members)Speaker (elected by Lok Sabha Members) No Voting rightsExcept the decisive vote.

Top 10 Facts about the Indian Parliament

1. The Parliament of India is circular which represents “Continuity”
2. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are horse shoe in shape.
3. Lok Sabha carpet is green in color which represents that India is an Agriculture land and the people here are elected from grass root level, Rajya Sabha carpet is red in color which denotes royalty and also tells about the sacrifice done by the freedom fighters.
4. The library in the Indian Parliament is the second largest in India.
5. Circumference of Parliament is 1/3rd of a mile i.e. 536.33m
6. The first hour (i.e. between 11 to 12 noon) is known as the Question Hour. During this MPs put forward questions about the policies, government and different bills.
7. Around 12 noon MPs can discuss any important topic with prior notice to the Speaker. This is known as Zero Hour.
8. President’s office is in Room number 13 of Parliament ( 13 no. is not so unlucky in this case).
9. Parliament canteen is the cheapest in the country with 3 course veg meal in 61 Rs and Chicken Biryani for Rs. 51 (Highest amount in the list)
10. Voting in Parliament is done electronically for the questions asked, amendments, new bills etc. There is a voting console, a system with colored buttons, green for a Yes, Red for No and Yellow for abstain.



Narendra Modi

Prime Minister of India Factsheet

Name Narendra Damodardas Modi
Position Held Prime Minister of India
Preceded by Manmohan Singh
Date of Birth Sep 17, 1950
Place of Birth Vadnagar, India
Qualifications Master’s degree in Political Science
Religion Hinduism
Spouse name Jashodaben Chimanlal
Assumed office May 26, 2014
Children N.A

About Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the head of the executive branch of the Government of India. His position is distinct from that of the President of India, who is the head of the State. As India follows a parliamentary system of government modelled after the Westminster system, most of the executive powers are exercised by the Prime Minister. He acts as an advisor to the President and is the leader of the Council of Ministers. The President appoints the Prime Minister of India and on his advice, appoints the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister can be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.

Roles and Responsibilities of Prime Minister

The roles and responsibilities of the Prime Minister are as follows:

Link between President and Council of Ministers:

The Prime Minister is the leader of the Council of Ministers and serves as the channel of communication between the President and the Council of Ministers. It is his duty to communicate to the President all the decisions taken by the Council of Ministers and to provide information regarding administration of the Union or proposals for the legislature as called for by the President.

Allocation of Portfolios:

He allocates portfolios among the ministers and distributes work among various ministries and offices. The Prime Minister coordinates work among various ministries and departments through the Cabinet Secretariat.

Inside the page
About Prime Minister of India Roles and Responsibilities of Prime Minister Powers/Authorities of Prime Minister
Facilities offered to Prime Minister Selection Process of Prime Minister Term and Retirement Age of Prime Minister
Eligibility Criteria to become Prime Minister of India Salary of Prime Minister of India Where does the Prime Minister Live?
Interesting Facts about Indian Prime Ministers List of Former Prime Ministers of India  

In-Charge of Ministries:

Prime Minister also retains certain portfolios that are not allocated to other ministers. He is generally in charge of the following ministries/departments:

  • Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions
  • Ministry of Planning
  • Department of Atomic Energy
  • Department of Space
  • Appointments Committee of the Cabinet

Leader of the Cabinet:

The Prime Minister summons and presides over meetings of the cabinet and determines what business shall be transacted in these meetings.

Link between the Parliament and the Cabinet:

The Prime Minister is also the link between the cabinet and the Parliament. He is the chief spokesperson of the government in the Parliament, along with the leader of the party in majority in the Lok Sabha. It is his responsibility to announce important policy decisions. The Prime Minister can also intervene in debates of general importance in the Parliament to clarify the government’s stand or policy.

Official Representative:

The Prime Minister represents India in various delegations, high-level meetings and international organisations and also addresses the nation on various occasions of national importance.

Powers/Authorities of Prime Minister

The various powers and authorities enjoyed by the Prime Minister are as follows:

Head of the Government:

The Prime Minister of India is the head of the Government. Though the President is the head of the State, most of the executive decisions are taken by the Prime Minister. All the important decision-making bodies in India, like the Union Cabinet and the Planning Commission, run under his supervision.

Leader of the Council of Ministers:

As far as the Prime Minister’s relation to the Council of Ministers is concerned, his position is that of “First among Equals”. In the case of death or resignation of the Prime Minister, the entire Council of Ministers has to resign. The ministers directly report to the Prime Minister. He can also remove a minister by asking for his resignation or having him dismissed by the President. If any difference of opinion arises between the Prime Minister and any other minister, the opinion of the Prime Minister prevails.

Leader of the Parliament:

The Prime Minister is the Leader of the House to which he belongs. He can also take part in debates in the House of which he is not a member. He can also advise the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha.

Representative of the Country:

In international affairs, he is the spokesperson of the country. The Prime Minister plays a major role in directing India’s foreign policy.


Facilities offered to Prime Minister

Some of the amenities provided to the Indian Prime Minister are:

  • Official residence: 7, Race Course Road or “Panchavati”
  • Personal staff Special Protection Group (SPG) who is responsible for his security
  • Prime Ministerial car (currently BMW 750i)
  • Exclusive aircraft (Air India One)

Selection Process of Prime Minister

The Constitution states that the President of India should appoint the leader of the party or alliance which is in majority in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister of India. In case no party or alliance enjoys majority, the President appoints the leader of the largest party or alliance as the Prime Minister. But he has to win the confidence vote in the Lower House of the Parliament as early as possible. A member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha can be appointed as the Prime Minister. If he is not a member of either House of the Parliament then he has to be elected to either House within six months of his appointment. As the Prime Minister, he is the Leader of the House of which he is a member.

Term and Retirement Age of Prime Minister

Unlike the President, the Prime Minister does not have a fixed tenure. The full term of the Prime Minister is five years, which coincides with the normal life of the Lok Sabha. However, the term can end sooner if he loses the vote of confidence in the Lower House. So, it can be said that he remains in power as long as he enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister can also resign by writing to the President.

There are no term limits on the office of the Prime Minister. There is also no official retirement age.

Eligibility Criteria to become Prime Minister of India

To be eligible for the position of the Prime Minister of India, a person should:

  • Be a citizen of India.
  • Be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.
  • Complete 25 years of age if he is a member of the Lok Sabha or 30 years if he is a member of the Rajya Sabha.

A person cannot be the Prime Minister of India if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India, the government of any state, or any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said governments.

Salary of Prime Minister of India

According to Article 75 of the Constitution of India, the salary of the Prime Minister is decided by the Parliament and revised from time to time. As on 31 July 2012 the monthly pay and allowances of the Prime Minister of India was Rs. 1,60,000 (US $2,600).

Pay and Allowance of the Prime Minister on 31 July 2012 (in rupees)

Pay 50000
Sumptuary Allowance 3000
Daily Allowance 62,000 (@ 2,000 per day)
Constituency Allowance 45000
Gross 1,60,000


Former Prime Ministers of India are provided with:

  • Rent-free accommodation for lifetime.
  • Medical facilities, 14 secretarial staff, office expenses against actual expenditure, six domestic executive-class flight tickets, and unlimited
  • free train travels for first five years.
  • SPG cover for one year.

After five years: One personal assistant and peon, free air and train tickets and Rs. 6,000 for office expenses.

Where does the Prime Minister Live?

The official residence of the Indian Prime Minister is 7, Race Course Road. It is also his main workplace. The official name of the residence is “Panchavati”. It was built in the 1980s. The entire complex spreads over an area of 12 acres and comprises five bungalows. When a person is appointed as the new Prime Minister, his predecessor vacates the residence and the incumbent is advised to move to his official residence at the earliest.


Interesting Facts about Indian Prime Ministers

  • Jawaharlal Nehru was the longest serving Indian Prime Minister, starting from India’s independence in 1947 to his death in 1964.
  • Gulzari Lal Nanda served twice as the acting Prime Minister of India after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru and Lal Bahadur Shastri.
  • Indira Gandhi was named “Woman of the Millennium” in a poll organised by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1999.
  • Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was the first woman to receive the Bharat Ratna. She was also awarded Bangladesh’s highest civilian award “Bangladesh Swadhinata Samman” in 2011.
  • Morarji Desai was the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India. He was also the first Prime Minister to resign without completing his full term.
  • Morarji Desai is the only Indian Prime Minister to be conferred upon the Nishaan-e-Pakistan (Pakistan’s highest civilian award).
  • Rajiv Gandhi was the youngest Indian Prime Minister; he assumed office at the age of 40.
  • Rajiv Gandhi was the first Prime Minister of India to live in 7, Race Course.
  • P.V. Narasimha Rao was the first Prime Minister from South India.
  • H.D. Deve Gowda was the first Prime Minister of India who was a member of the Rajya Sabha.
  • Dr. Manmohan Singh was the longest-serving Prime Minister of India who was a member of the Rajya Sabha (2004-2014).

List of Former Prime Ministers of India

Since independence in 1947, India has had 15 different Prime Ministers till now. There have been many outstanding leaders from different political parties who held India’s top post. Some of them served a complete five-year term while others governed the nation for more than five years. With Narendra Modi as the present Prime Minister, let’s take a look at the legacy left behind by the Prime Ministers of India since 1947.

Name Took office Left office Party
Shri. Narendra Modi May 26, 2014 Incumbent Bharatiya Janata Party
Dr. Manmohan Singh May 22, 2004 May 26, 2014 Indian National Congress
Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee Mar 19, 1998 May 22, 2004 Bharatiya Janata Party
Shri Inder Kumar Gujral Apr 21, 1997 Mar 19, 1998 Janata Dal
Shri H. D. Deve Gowda Jun 1, 1996 Apr 21, 1997 Janata Dal
Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee May 16, 1996 Jun 1, 1996 Bharatiya Janata Party
Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao Jun 21, 1991 May 16, 1996 Congress (I)
Shri Chandra Shekhar Nov 10, 1990 Jun 21, 1991 Janata Dal (S)
Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh Dec 2, 1989 Nov 10, 1990 Janata Dal
Shri Rajiv Gandhi Oct 31, 1984 Dec 2, 1989 Congress (I)
Smt. Indira Gandhi Jan 14, 1980 Oct 31, 1984 Congress (I)
Shri Charan Singh Jul 28, 1979 Jan 14, 1980 Janata Party
Shri Morarji Desai Mar 24, 1977 Jul 28, 1979 Janata Party
Smt. Indira Gandhi Jan 24, 1966 Mar 24, 1977 Congress
Shri Gulzari Lal Nanda Jan 11, 1966 Jan 24, 1966 Congress
Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Jun 9, 1964 Jan 11, 1966 Congress
Shri Gulzari Lal Nanda May 27, 1964 Jun 9, 1964 Congress
Shri Jawaharlal Nehru Aug 15, 1947 May 27, 1964 Congress



About Municipal Corporation in India

The urban local government which works for the development of any Metropolitan City with a population of more than one million is known as the Municipal Corporation in India. The members of the Municipal Corporation are directly elected by the people andare called Councillors.

Who are the members of a Municipal Corporation

The Municipal Corporation consists of a committee which includes a Mayor with Councillors. The Corporations provide necessary community services to the Metropolitan Cities and are formed under the Corporation Act of 1835 of Panchayati Raj system. The Mayor heads the Municipal Corporation. The corporation remains under the charge of Municipal Commissioner. The Executive Officers along with the Mayor and Councillors monitor and implement the programs related to planning the development of the corporation. The number of Councillors also depends upon the area and population of the city. In India, the four metropolitan cities; Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, have the largest corporations.

Who conducts Municipal Corporation Elections

The elections to the Municipal Corporations are conducted under the guidance, direction, superintendence and control of the State Election Commission. The corporations fall under the State government jurisdiction, therefore there are no uniform provisions for the election of the municipal bodies. In some States, the elections are organised by the state governments, while in some states, the Executive Officers arrange the same.

How are Municipal Corporation Elections conducted?

The members of the Municipal Corporation are elected by the people through direct elections. The elections are held for a particular ward in the city. The electoral roll of a particular ward elects the representative or Councillor for their ward. The electoral roll for each ward is divided in to one or several parts depending upon the area within the ward where the voters of each part reside. This means that the voters included in each part belong to a street or a road or a named area within that ward. The voters from all the parts together form the electoral roll of a particular ward.

Qualification for contesting Municipal Corporation elections

A person can contest elections for Municipal Corporation if he/she fulfills the following criteria:

  • She/he must be a citizen of India
  • She/he must have attained the age of 21 years
  • His/her name is registered in the Electoral Roll of a ward
  • She/he is not earlier disqualified for contesting Municipal Corporation elections.
  • She/he must not be an employee of any Municipal Corporation in India

There are few seats which are reserved for scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, backward classes and women. Every candidate’s nomination form should have a declaration stating the class, caste, or tribe that she/he belongs to. There should be a declaration that the candidate is a woman, in case the seat is reserved for a women candidate.

The Term of a Municipal Corporation

The office of Municipal Corporation runs for a period of five years since the beginning of its first meeting. It is subject to dissolution under various circumstances:

  • If the State finds the Corporation lagging in its duties
  • If the State finds the corporation exceeding or abusing its power
  • Declaration of the Municipal elections in the State as void, or withdrawal of the entire area of the ward from the municipal operations.

Functions of Municipal Corporation

The Municipal Corporation looks after providing the essential services to the people of that district/area which includes:

  • Hospitals
  • Water Supply
  • Drainage
  • Market places
  • Fire Brigades
  • Roads
  • Over Bridge
  • Solid Waste
  • Street Lightning
  • Parks
  • Education
  • Birth and Death Records in the Area

Roles and Duties of a Councillor

The Councillors under the Municipal Corporations perform the following duties:

  • To work towards the welfare and interests of the municipality as a whole.
  • To participate in the council meetings, council committee meetings and meetings of other related bodies.
  • To participate in developing and evaluating the programs and policies of the municipality
  • To keep the privately discussed matters in council meetings in confidence.
  • To get all the information from the chief administrative officer about the operation and administration of the municipality.
  • To perform any other similar or necessary duties.



Why the rapes are increasing ……?

 Rape is a weapon that distorts a woman’s sexuality, restricts her freedom of movement and violates her human rights. It leaves a woman feeling exposed, humiliated and traumatised. A rapist not only violates the victim’s privacy and personal integrity, but also causes serious physical and psychological damage.

In my kind information generally I have seen so many rape cases around our Indian society .there are many reasons behind this evil.

Some of the important causes are…

  1. Increasing the adaptation of western culture in our society b/c in our society only the physical adaptation of western culture takes place not the psychological thinking.

  2. There is existing a love triangle or rectangle among the girls and boys.

  3. Our administration is not highly conscious.

  4. Frustration of unemployment for men.

  5. Highly show off by a girl and crossing a definite range of self discipline.

  6. Carelessness of parents to their child.

  7. Declination of emotional thinking to human being.

  8. Increasing adolescence.

  9. Delay of punishment to the rapist by Indian government.

  10. Decrease the awareness of girl’s family from childhood that what is the friend circle of their daughter & son in their society.





              what is love?

“It is acceptable if there is no objection of girl’s father &brother both at a time not girl’s mother &sister and in the case of boy only wish of boy’s father b/c every father has expectation  that his child may become a respective civilian of india not a person who is addicted to this evil and any father and brother of a girl never want that the name of his daughter/sister may be attached with a boy by the  society if both the father and brother are happy by attaching the name of their daughter/sister with a boy in a relationship or friendship by society than it is not wrong in my opinion. ”  

          love is nothing b/w a boy and girl at the time of college label or at the  young age or bachelor life.It is the totally time pass or the wastage of the precious golden time in the form of the long conversation on the mobiles,and through various social sites like facebook, whats app or some thing something etc.

 A couple who is suffering from these condition does not understand the most precious value of time. in young age there is a lot of potential if a boy/girl uses it in the right way he/she achieves the true goal of life. there are so many friends of my who are suffering from this monster problem love.As they share their experience with me than i get the final conclusion of the whole experience of their relationship’s life. As my friend  who is from NIT Srinagar he told me that i am in a great problem b/c i am in a relationship with a girl & and one of the other friend of me who is from NIT kurukshetra ,told me that ankur help me to fell in hell through this evil love ,he told me that there is totally time wasting with him during this selfish love.his dream is to become an IPS officer in delhi cadre but now these days he has completely forgotten his actual goal of life due to a girl .

 One of my friend from NIT Allahabaad ,he was very sincere from childhood ,one day he called me and told me about his whole mystery that he has not any girl friend but has many normal friend as girls. His dream was to become an IES officer but now these days he has also forgotten his goal due to so many disturbing elements as i mentioned above.

 I accept that love is necessary to live the life but it has also a proper stage of time. we should love or hate to some one by concerning the present circumstances. and there is my friend ,he is also suffering this. One day i asked him that she is your girl friend or not? he replied me that no she is not my girl friend but some…. i asked him if he does not accept that she is his girlfriend and that girl also does not accept that he is her boy friend. 

 why they are wasting the precious time? they understand that it is the part of our social life than there is my question to both of them ,have they completed their whole responsibility of life because they are telling that it is the social life?

 Any this type of relation is true when there is the no problem of this relationship to the brother &father of the girl not mother and sister and for boy’s father only because i have read a number of such types of  psychological books. on the reference of those i am mentioning here.

 It is very wrong in my opinion because  no one knows what will the our future who will become our wife/husband?

 Then why they are destroying their present by doing this type of irrelevant activities.







               WHAT IS LOVE &LIFE”

     Life is a splendid platform of any human being to show his/her potential.if any where life is possible than at that place an emotional character love is also my opinion without love life is not i am not describing the love b/w lover in the form of a girl friend &boy friend.i will explain this type of selfish love later.

when a human being comes on this earth and as he/she opens it’s eyes and see his/her mother,he/she is connected  a emotional barrier love with his/her this world a mother tolerates our weight through nine months without any ignorance of our presence .at that time she does not think that it is problem to me.she works at home without thinking that there is a irrelevant thing is attached to her lap.

it is a true dedication  of a women in this world.if any person who is advised to attached 2 kg weight with his /her stomach for 9 months then we notice that he/she can,t do it through 9 hours only not 9 in this world a mother is having the first place and after her god.

 when a boy or girl achieves his/her young age than at that time he/she forget this dedication of mother and he/she believes on her/his girl friend/boy friend.

 he/she think that this is the true love but in my opinion it is only a show off and this is only for a favourite time pass,we will sacrifice ourselves to this ambitious love.

 this type of show off is not a love it is only a insult of the  holy word love.

 never change the order of  place of mother to a greedy/selfish/ambitious/deceiver /knave/fraud/crook/beguiler girl/boy.

 in our vedic language sanskrit that ” janni janambhoomi swargadapi gariyasi”

 it means that mother and motherland have the higher priority than the heaven.




“life is a pleasant journey”



         Life is a pleasant journey

                          when we think that the life is treated as a journey which has a starting point but there is no end point of journey ,it starts from birth and end with death.

there are lot of struggles ,it starts from when a male chromosome cracks the female egg and form a embryo and after the embryo formation it is developed as a infant in the mother’s ovarian.

when a infant takes its first breath in the universe at that time the external struggle of a baby start.

when the last breath of a human being over then the struggle of a person over.

during this period he/she tries to show best  effort to prove his/her excellence .we do not take any thing with birth and do not carry any thing at the end time.but some thing is left on this earth it is the well and appreciable tasks of a human our religious book like ‘bhagvat geeta’ ,’ramayan’ and our veds it is mention that the human body is only the composition of five element which are present in majority on this earth.only our soul is transferred from one to another.we should always be happy because no one knows when the last breath of life may come.some times i notice that a person who is working as a member of administration in any system then he/she becomes pride and do not behave well with his/her subordinates .it is very wrong because all the creatures of earth are made of five elements of earth and being a student of science in my opinion all the same element has same chemical property there is no difference b/w the same element like if water (h2o) has same physical &chemical property either it is present in any form in nature.Life has a vital roll of sacrifice. this statements is the universal truth of life.


Human philosopher 

Mechanical engineer



Hello friends

Ankur bharadwaj


                     “Life is now almost saturated “

As we think what is our destiny? What is the goal of our life? What will be our future? Can we achieve such a life which may fulfill with great joy and happiness? Will our thoughts may get such a label at that label we can do anything? With which lady or gent our life will be settled?

 One who will be our life partner, will support us or not? What will happen if any problem will occur at that time in adjustment with life partner?

Such type of many question are come out in our mind at this stage of life. We think that we are mature but it is only our misunderstanding. The ‘mature’ word is not an ordinary word. it is very complicated  to know the meaning of mature. In my opinion this word is the most expensive word for a teenager or a young who is passing through a teen age.

                        In my opinion this word has a full form like as ‘M’ is stands for middle aged person & ‘A’ is stand for after the childhood & ‘T’ is stand for temperament of enthusiasm & ‘U’ is stand for ultimate courage & ‘R’ is stand for rigid to oppose difficulty & ‘E’ is stand  for energy rises from top to bottom.

Thus it is also a problem itself that he or she is mature or not at this stage. Sometimes a child who is mature but he does not accept that he is mature and make a mistake like as innocent child. It is the most worst mistake of him or her that he or she does not accept that he or she a teen not an innocent.


Ankur Bharadwaj

Mechanical engineer

Psychological  thinker

Jai shree Krishna.






In life generally we see that this thing is very easy but it appears as a complex when we pass through it .

   swami vivekanand who was the great personality of india. they are the highly inspirational for us because in cikaago confrence 1872,they addressed the assembly with a great enthusiasm.

“An Indian can’t do any specific or unbelievable task”

This type of thinking is present in the mind of foreign countries people. They think that we are such type of person who believe in the superstitions. But today era has been changed. Foreign counties people think that India is a country that is known for snakes and mouse. But they don’t know that now a child who born in India, plays a game in computer which is operated by a device known as mouse and at the place of snake a blue colour or black colour broadband cable is inserted in their laptops by this whole universe is present in the pockets of Indian human being.

               We have a natural stamina to fight against the terrorism. Today Indian population is more than 121 cr. But it is our plus point that we have a large physical quantity.

To the development of any nation both physical as well as mental strength are necessary. In India a not highly qualified person as a leader works .his subordinates are highly qualified as IAS & IES & IPS & IFS .it is very wrong tradition.

If we want to develop our country then this wrong tradition must be changed.

Now I stop my words.